Christine M. Arnold

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Directed differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has seen significant progress in recent years. However, most differentiated populations exhibit immature properties of an early embryonic stage, raising concerns about their ability to model and treat disease. Here, we report the directed differentiation of hPSCs into medial ganglionic(More)
The anatomy of the perisylvian component of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) has recently been reviewed by numerous diffusion tensor imaging tractography (DTI) studies. However, little is known about the exact cortical terminations of this tract. The aim of the present work is to isolate the different subcomponents of this tract with fiber(More)
The "cysteine string protein" (CSP) genes of higher eukaryotes code for a novel family of proteins characterized by a "J" domain and an unusual cysteine-rich region. Previous studies had localized the proteins in neuropil and synaptic terminals of larval and adult Drosophila and linked the temperature-sensitive paralysis of the mutants described here to(More)
There is significant pharmacological and behavioral evidence that group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1a and mGluR5) in the nucleus accumbens play an important role in the neurochemical and pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie addiction to psychostimulants. To further address this issue, we undertook a detailed ultrastructural analysis to(More)
Excitatory and inhibitory balance of neuronal network activity is essential for normal brain function and may be of particular importance to memory. Apolipoprotein (apo) E4 and amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, two major players in Alzheimer's disease (AD), cause inhibitory interneuron impairments and aberrant neuronal activity in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in(More)
Cysteine string proteins (CSPs) are conserved secretory vesicle proteins involved in regulating neurotransmitter and peptide release. While the function of the J-domain has been studied in detail, little is known about other conserved regions. We have constructed mutant genes coding for proteins with modified cysteine string, linker region or C terminus and(More)
OBJECTIVE The transgenic arteriovenous fistula model, surgically constructed with transgenic mouse aorta interposed in common carotid artery-to-external jugular vein fistulae in nude rats, has a 4-month experimental window because patency and transgenic phenotype are lost over time. We adapted this model to investigate occlusive arteriopathy in brain(More)
OBJECTIVE The subtemporal approach for a superficial temporal artery-to-superior cerebellar artery bypass requires significant superior retraction that can injure the temporal lobe, compromise veins, and cause edema postoperatively. In contrast, the pretemporal approach requires posterolateral retraction that seems to be less injurious to the temporal lobe(More)
GABAergic cortical interneurons, derived from the embryonic medial and caudal ganglionic eminences (MGE and CGE), are functionally and morphologically diverse. Inroads have been made in understanding the roles of distinct cortical interneuron subgroups, however, there are still many mechanisms to be worked out that may contribute to the development and(More)
BACKGROUND As common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are frequently used experimental animals, sensitive test systems are needed to evaluate impairment and pain caused by procedures and diseases. METHODS A diurnal profile of healthy animals was obtained by videotaping. Differences in social behavior and cognitive skills between marmosets with established(More)
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