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Species extinctions pose serious threats to the functioning of ecological communities worldwide. We used two qualitative and quantitative pollination networks to simulate extinction patterns following three removal scenarios: random removal and systematic removal of the strongest and weakest interactors. We accounted for pollinator behaviour by including(More)
Symbiotic microorganisms that live intimately associated with terrestrial plants affect both the quantity and quality of resources, and thus the energy supply to consumer populations at higher levels in the food chain. Empirical evidence on resource limitation of food webs points to primary productivity as a major determinant of consumer abundance and(More)
Complex biotic interactions shape ecological communities of plants, herbivores and their natural enemies. In studies of multi-trophic interactions, the presence of small, invisible micro-organisms associated with plants and those of a fourth above-ground trophic level have often been neglected. Incorporating these neglected factors improves our(More)
Notations are central for understanding mathematical discourse. Readers would like to read notations that transport the meaning well and prefer notations that are familiar to them. Therefore, authors optimize the choice of notations with respect to these two criteria, while at the same time trying to remain consistent over the document and their own prior(More)
The immunosuppressive macrolide rapa-mycin and its derivative everolimus (SDZ RAD, RAD) inhibit the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. In this study, we provide evidence that RAD has profound antiproliferative activity in vitro and in NOD/SCID mice in vivo against Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and ana-plastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) cells.(More)
In this paper we explore the use of documents as interfaces to mathematical knowledge. We propose an augmented document model that facilitates the explication of a document's notation context, i.e. the selection of appropriate presentations for all symbols in the document. By separating the notation context from the structure and content of a document, we(More)
Understanding the functional consequences of biodiversity loss is a major goal of ecology. Animal-mediated pollination is an essential ecosystem function and service provided to mankind. However, little is known how pollinator diversity could affect pollination services. Using a substitutive design, we experimentally manipulated functional group (FG) and(More)
Translation of mRNA is the final step in gene expression, and regulation of this process allows the immediate and direct adaptation of protein levels, independent of nuclear pathways. Translational control is required for the fine-tuning of protein levels during cell proliferation and differentiation, and for spatial and temporal regulation of protein(More)
Parasitoids are an important mortality factor for insects. Susceptibility to parasitoids should thus be under strong negative selection. Nevertheless, ample genetic variation for susceptibility to parasitoids is commonly observed in natural populations, suggesting that trade-offs may constrain the evolution of reduced susceptibility. This can be studied by(More)
The consequences of plant species loss are rarely assessed in a multi-trophic context and especially effects on life-history traits of organisms at higher trophic levels have remained largely unstudied. We used a grassland biodiversity experiment and measured the effects of two components of plant diversity, plant species richness and the presence of(More)