Christine Leong

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OBJECTIVE To review the etiology and treatment strategies for multiple sclerosis (MS). DATA SOURCES Published information on MS and targeted treatment strategies extending back to 1955. The search terms multiple sclerosis and pathology, prevalence, genetics, and each of the common symptoms of MS were used. STUDY SELECTION Seventy-two studies were(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the literature investigating the efficacy and safety of antidepressants for treating depression in individuals with dementia. DATA SOURCES A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases from inception to May 2013 for studies in English that evaluated the treatment of depression in patients(More)
BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus may produce superantigens that can non-specifically activate CD4(+) cells to potentially target the myelin basic protein. OBJECTIVE This study examined the association between individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and colonization with S. aureus harbouring superantigens. METHODS Nasal swabs were collected from non-MS(More)
Objective: To provide a comprehensive overview on the emerging treatments used for the treatment management of multiple sclerosis (MS). Data Sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Toxnet databases were used to conduct all comprehensive literature searches over the time period of 1989 to 2009. Search terms such as: multiple sclerosis and oral treatment,(More)
BACKGROUND Community pharmacists frequently encounter patients at risk of medication misuse, diversion, and intentional overdose. However, few studies have examined the perspective of the pharmacist on the identification and management of these patients. OBJECTIVE To understand the perspective of community pharmacists on the dispensing of select(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the extent of increase in use and the rate of continuation versus discontinuation of psychotropic agents before, during, and after pregnancy. METHODS Rates of psychotropic use (antidepressants, anxiolytic/sedative-hypnotics, antiepileptics, antipsychotics, lithium, stimulants) among women with a hospital-recorded pregnancy outcome(More)
The integration of web-based learning into the curriculum of healthcare education has significantly increased over the past decade. This article aims to describe the student perspectives of an online module to teach physical assessment skills for pharmacy, dentistry, and dental hygiene students. A total of 103 students completed the online module: 48(More)
BACKGROUND Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are widely prescribed for mood and anxiety disorders. However, it is not clear whether SNRIs are more strongly associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events than SSRIs. METHODS This was a propensity score-matched,(More)