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Primary cilia have essential functions in vertebrate development and signaling. However, little is known about cilia function in brain morphogenesis, a process that is severely affected in human ciliopathies. Here, we study telencephalic morphogenesis in a mouse mutant for the ciliopathy gene Ftm (Rpgrip1l). We show that the olfactory bulbs are present in(More)
Six genes are widely expressed during vertebrate embryogenesis, suggesting that they are implicated in diverse differentiation processes. To determine the functions of the Six1 gene, we constructed Six1-deficient mice by replacing its first exon by the beta-galactosidase gene. We have previously shown that mice lacking Six1 die at birth due to thoracic(More)
Cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs), which give rise to the most abundant neuronal type in the mammalian brain, arise from a restricted pool of primary progenitors in the rhombic lip (RL). Sonic hedgehog (Shh) secreted by developing Purkinje cells is essential for the expansion of GCPs and for cerebellar morphogenesis. Recent studies have shown that(More)
In mammals, several genetic pathways have been characterized that govern engagement of multipotent embryonic progenitors into the myogenic program through the control of the key myogenic regulatory gene Myod. Here we demonstrate the involvement of Six homeoproteins. We first targeted into a Pax3 allele a sequence encoding a negative form of Six4 that binds(More)
During vertebrate development, brain patterning and head morphogenesis are tightly coordinated. In this paper, we study these processes in the mouse mutant Fused toes (Ft), which presents severe head defects at midgestation. The Ft line carries a 1.6-Mb deletion on chromosome 8. This deletion eliminates six genes, three members of the Iroquois gene family,(More)
Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) is a frequent brain disorder found in over 80 human congenital syndromes including ciliopathies. Here, we report a severe AgCC in Ftm/Rpgrip1l knockout mouse, which provides a valuable model for Meckel-Grüber syndrome. Rpgrip1l encodes a protein of the ciliary transition zone, which is essential for ciliogenesis in(More)
Mice deficient for the homeobox gene Six1 display defects in limb muscles consistent with the Six1 expression in myogenic cells. In addition to its myogenic expression domain, Six1 has been described as being located in digit tendons and as being associated with connective tissue patterning in mouse limbs. With the aim of determining a possible involvement(More)
Regular production of somites, precursors of the axial skeleton and attached muscles is controlled by a molecular oscillator, the segmentation clock, which drives cyclic transcription of target genes in the unsegmented presomitic mesoderm (PSM). The clock is based on a negative feedback loop which generates pulses of transcription that oscillate with the(More)
The primary cilium is essential for skin morphogenesis through regulating the Notch, Wnt, and hedgehog signaling pathways. Prior studies on the functions of primary cilia in the skin were based on the investigations of genes that are essential for cilium formation. However, none of these ciliogenic genes has been linked to ciliopathy, a group of disorders(More)
Objective The aim of this work is to identify the functions of the ciliary gene Rpgrip1l/Ftm in neurogenesis in the cerebral cortex. Rpgrip1l/Ftm encodes a protein enriched at the ciliary transition zone and is involved in ciliopathies with associated brain abnormalities, Meckel and Joubert syndromes. We have previously shown that Rpgrip1l is required for(More)