Christine L. Sun

Learn More
Northern acidic peatlands are important sources of atmospheric methane, yet the methanogens in them are poorly characterized. We examined methanogenic activities and methanogen populations at different depths in two peatlands, McLean bog (MB) and Chicago bog (CB). Both have acidic (pH 3.5-4.5) peat soils, but the pH of the deeper layers of CB is(More)
We analyzed near-complete population (composite) genomic sequences for coexisting acidophilic iron-oxidizing Leptospirillum group II and III bacteria (phylum Nitrospirae) and an extrachromosomal plasmid from a Richmond Mine, Iron Mountain, CA, acid mine drainage biofilm. Community proteomic analysis of the genomically characterized sample and two other(More)
Despite the critical role of the human microbiota in health, our understanding of microbiota compositional dynamics during and after pregnancy is incomplete. We conducted a case-control study of 49 pregnant women, 15 of whom delivered preterm. From 40 of these women, we analyzed bacterial taxonomic composition of 3,767 specimens collected prospectively and(More)
Well-studied innate immune systems exist throughout bacteria and archaea, but a more recently discovered genomic locus may offer prokaryotes surprising immunological adaptability. Mediated by a cassette-like genomic locus termed Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), the microbial adaptive immune system differs from its(More)
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas systems provide adaptive immunity against phage via spacer-encoded CRISPR RNAs that are complementary to invasive nucleic acids. Here, we challenge Streptococcus thermophilus with a bacteriophage, and used PCR-based metagenomics to monitor phage-derived spacers daily for 15 days in two(More)
Viruses may play an important role in the evolution of human microbial communities. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity to previously encountered viruses. Little is known about CRISPR composition in members of human microbial communities, the relative rate of CRISPR locus(More)
Interactions between bacteria and their coexisting phage populations impact evolution and can strongly influence biogeochemical processes in natural ecosystems. Periodically, mutation or migration results in exposure of a host to a phage to which it has no immunity; alternatively, a phage may be exposed to a host it cannot infect. To explore the processes(More)
Current understanding of microorganism-virus interactions, which shape the evolution and functioning of Earth's ecosystems, is based primarily on cultivated organisms. Here we investigate thousands of viral and microbial genomes recovered using a cultivation-independent approach to study the frequency, variety and taxonomic distribution of viral defence(More)
Bacterial CRISPR-Cas systems provide insight into recent population history because they rapidly incorporate, in a unidirectional manner, short fragments (spacers) from coexisting infective virus populations into host chromosomes. Immunity is achieved by sequence identity between transcripts of spacers and their targets. Here, we used metagenomics to study(More)
Fluctuating environmental conditions can promote diversity and control dominance in community composition. In addition to seasonal temperature and moisture changes, seasonal supply of metabolic substrates selects populations temporally. Here we demonstrate cascading effects in the supply of metabolic substrates on methanogenesis and community composition of(More)