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Well-studied innate immune systems exist throughout bacteria and archaea, but a more recently discovered genomic locus may offer prokaryotes surprising immunological adaptability. Mediated by a cassette-like genomic locus termed Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), the microbial adaptive immune system differs from its(More)
Fluctuating environmental conditions can promote diversity and control dominance in community composition. In addition to seasonal temperature and moisture changes, seasonal supply of metabolic substrates selects populations temporally. Here we demonstrate cascading effects in the supply of metabolic substrates on methanogenesis and community composition of(More)
Current understanding of microorganism-virus interactions, which shape the evolution and functioning of Earth's ecosystems, is based primarily on cultivated organisms. Here we investigate thousands of viral and microbial genomes recovered using a cultivation-independent approach to study the frequency, variety and taxonomic distribution of viral defence(More)
Disturbances of the human microbiota and their gene pool, the microbiome, seem to be an increasingly common global feature of modern life. Drugs and microbial pathogens are among the most widespread and insidious causes of microbiota disturbance, but antibiotics deserve special attention, not only because of their pervasive eff ects on the indigenous human(More)
Memory impairments of passive avoidance response were observed in 38 Wistar rats with bilateral fornix-fimbria transection. After fornix-fimbria lesions the degree of performance decreased from 65.3% to 13.6% (P < 0.01). Autotransplantation of superior cervical ganglion (SCG) into bilateral dorsal hippocampi improved memory function to a considerable(More)
Anecdotal reports of polydrug abuse in humans using tripelennamine and pentazocine prompted our investigation of drug interactions between tripelennamine, morphine and various synthetic mixed agonist-antagonists in mice. Pentazocine, nalbuphene and butorphanol, at doses of 4.0-8.0 mg/kg, all showed frank or borderline intrinsic antinociceptive activity and(More)
Antinociception was assessed in male CD-1 mice by a modification of Haffner's tail-clamp procedure. The H1 blockers, including an ethylenediamine (pyrilamine), an ethanolamine (diphenhydramine), a phenothiazine (methdilazine), a piperazine (cyclizine) and an alkylamine (chlorpheniramine), all produced antinociception when given alone to mice and also caused(More)