Christine L. Halbert

Learn More
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are single-stranded dependent parvoviruses being developed as transducing vectors. Although at least five serotypes exist (AAV types 1 to 5 [AAV1 to -5]), only AAV2, AAV3, and AAV4 have been sequenced, and the vectors in use were almost all derived from AAV2. Here we report the cloning and sequencing of a second AAV3 genome(More)
The contribution of the E6 and E7 open reading frames of human papillomavirus type 6b (HPV6b) and HPV16 to immortalization of human keratinocytes was evaluated by using amphotropic recombinant retroviruses. The HPV16 E7 gene could immortalize primary human keratinocytes without the cooperation of the viral E6 gene; however, E6 was able to contribute(More)
Although vectors derived from adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) promote gene transfer and expression in many somatic tissues, studies with animal models and cultured cells show that the apical surface of airway epithelia is resistant to transduction by AAV2 vectors. Approaches to increase transduction rates include increasing the amount of vector and(More)
Vectors based on recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV) have emerged as tools of choice for gene transfer to skeletal muscle. rAAV vectors demonstrate efficient, safe, and stable transduction. Multiple serotypes of AAV exist, but vectors based on serotype 2 (rAAV2) are the most thoroughly characterized and frequently employed. Here, we characterize(More)
Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) causes a contagious lung cancer in sheep and goats, with significant animal health and economic consequences. The host range of JSRV is in part limited by species-specific differences in the virus entry receptor, hyaluronidase 2 (Hyal2), which is not functional as a receptor in mice but is functional in humans. Sheep are(More)
Previous studies have shown that the E7 gene of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 or 18 alone was sufficient for immortalization of human foreskin epithelial cells (HFE) and that the efficiency was increased in cooperation with the respective E6 gene, whereas the HPV6 E6 or E7 gene was not active in HFE. To detect weak immortalizing activities of the HPV6(More)
Vectors derived from adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) promote gene transfer and expression in the lung; however, we have found that while gene expression can persist for at least 8 months in mice, it was reduced dramatically in rabbits over a period of 2 months. The efficiency and persistence of AAV2-mediated gene expression in the human lung have yet(More)
Primary human aortic and myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were immortalized using an amphotropic recombinant retroviral construct containing the E6 and E7 open reading frames (ORFs) of human papillomavirus type 16. The SMCs expressing the E6/E7 ORFs have considerably elevated growth rates when compared with nonimmortalized control cells and show no(More)
The clotting factor VIII (FVIII) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cDNAs have dramatically reduced levels of expression compared to clotting factor IX (FIX) and other cDNAs (100 and 1,000-fold lower, respectively), when produced in cells by using an expression vector. Part of the inhibitory signal in the FVIII cDNA has been(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal, X-linked muscle disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated gene replacement strategies hold promise as a treatment. Studies in animal models and human trials suggested that immune responses to AAV capsid proteins and transgene products prevented efficient(More)