Christine Keng Choo Loo

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BACKGROUND So far, no comprehensive answer has emerged to the question of whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can make a clinically useful contribution to the treatment of major depression. We aim to present a systematic review and meta-analysis of tDCS in the treatment of depression. METHOD Medline and Embase were searched for(More)
BACKGROUND The efficacy and safety of bilateral prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treating resistant major depression were examined in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. METHOD Nineteen medication-resistant depressed subjects were randomly assigned to 3 weeks of active or sham rTMS. Effects on mood and(More)
BACKGROUND There is preliminary evidence that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may be useful for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but no definitive study has been published, and the effect of laterality of stimulation is uncertain. METHOD Subjects (N = 12) with resistant OCD were allocated randomly to either right(More)
BACKGROUND Carefully designed controlled studies are essential in further evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in psychiatric disorders. A major methodological concern is the design of the "sham" control for TMS. An ideal sham would produce negligible cortical stimulation in conjunction with a scalp sensation akin(More)
The field of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has experienced significant growth in the past 15 years. One of the tES techniques leading this increased interest is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Significant research efforts have been devoted to determining the clinical potential of tDCS in humans. Despite the promising results(More)
BACKGROUND High and low frequency repetititve transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are both effective in treating depression but have contrary effects on motor cortical activity. This study aimed to understand further the mechanisms of action of high and low frequency rTMS by examining their acute effects on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in(More)
BACKGROUND The safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has only previously been formally studied in volunteers receiving a single session of stimulation or in a small number of depressed subjects receiving a 2-week treatment course. This study examined safety issues in depressed subjects receiving up to 4 weeks of rTMS. Efficacy(More)
Interest is rapidly developing in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as an emerging tool in neurology and psychiatry. tDCS involves the application of weak, unidirectional currents through scalp electrodes to alter neuronal excitability, that may outlast the period of stimulation (Arul-Anandam & Loo, 2009). In addition to being a tool for(More)
BACKGROUND The embryonic origin of liver stellate cells is unknown. METHODS We investigated the development of stellate cells in histological sections of human liver of 7-20 weeks gestation, using neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) to highlight stellate cells by the immunoperoxidase method. RESULTS We observed a layer of submesothelial cells beneath(More)
We describe the clinical and pathologic findings in three cases of cystic dysplasia of the testis and compare our findings to others in the English literature. The condition is characterized by dilatation of the rete testis with or without similarly affected adjacent structures. It is important to recognize this lesion for two reasons. First, it is(More)