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In addition to the apical-basal polarity pathway operating in epithelial cells, a planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway establishes polarity within the plane of epithelial tissues and is conserved from Drosophila to mammals. In Drosophila, a 'core' group of PCP genes including frizzled (fz), flamingo/starry night, dishevelled (dsh), Van Gogh/strabismus and(More)
Sound perception relies on the planar polarization of the mechanosensory hair cell apex, which develops a V-shaped stereocilia bundle pointing toward an eccentric kinocilium. It remains unknown how intrinsically asymmetric bundles arise and are concomitantly oriented in the tissue. We report here that mInsc, LGN, and Gαi proteins, which classically regulate(More)
Oligodendrocytes are post-mitotic cells that myelinate axons in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). They develop from proliferating oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which arise in germinal zones, migrate throughout the developing white matter and divide a limited number of times before they terminally differentiate. Thus far, it has been(More)
A powerful tool for postgenomic analysis of mammalian gene function is gene targeting in mouse ES cells. We report that homologous recombination using a promoterless gene trap vector ("targeting trapping") yields targeting frequencies averaging above 50%, a significant increase compared with current approaches. These high frequencies appear to be due to the(More)
In the developing mouse retina, multipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) give rise to specific retinal cell types at different times, but the molecular mechanisms regulating how RPCs change over time remain unclear. In the Drosophila neuroblast lineage, the zinc finger transcription factor Hunchback (Hb) is both necessary and sufficient to specify(More)
The pathogenesis of endometriosis, a disease widely believed to arise from an aberrant growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, is still unclear. We have previously observed that cytokine-stimulated endometrial cells of women with endometriosis secrete in vitro increased amounts of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). This factor may be important(More)
Cell polarity is critical in various cellular processes ranging from cell migration to asymmetric cell division and axon and dendrite specification. Similarly, myelination by Schwann cells is polarized, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we show that the polarity protein Par-3 localizes asymmetrically in Schwann cells at the axon-glial(More)
The timing of oligodendrocyte development is regulated by thyroid hormone (TH) in vitro and in vivo, but it is still uncertain which TH receptors mediate this regulation. TH acts through nuclear receptors that are encoded by two genes, TRalpha and TRbeta. Here, we provide direct evidence for the involvement of the TRalpha1 receptor isoform in vivo, by(More)
Semaphorins and Plexins are cognate ligand-receptor families that regulate important steps during nervous system development. The Plexin-B2 receptor is critically involved in neural tube closure and cerebellar granule cell development, however, its specific ligands have only been suggested by in vitro studies. Here, we show by in vivo and in vitro analyses(More)
Two lambda gt11 clones containing fragments of cDNA encoding the prolactin receptor from rabbit mammary gland were isolated using a rat liver prolactin receptor cDNA probe. An 1848-base-pair open reading frame encodes a mature prolactin-binding protein of 592 amino acids that contains three domains: (i) the extracellular, amino-terminal, prolactin-binding(More)