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iii Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) remains a major public health problem. It is the fourth leading cause of chronic morbidity and mortality in the United States, and is projected to rank fifth in 2020 in burden of disease caused worldwide, according to a study published by the World Bank/World Health Organization. Furthermore, although COPD(More)
This research examines the pattern of Web information seeking in four groups of nurses with different combinations of domain expertise and Web expertise. Protocols were gathered as the nurses carried out information-seeking tasks in the domain of osteoporosis. Domain and Web novices searched breadth-first and did little or no evaluation of the results.(More)
Lung function is commonly used as the primary endpoint in asthma clinical trials, but it may not reflect changes which are important to patients. The present study compared changes in, and relationships between, traditional and patient-centred end-points during treatment with three classes of asthma medication. Subjects with mild-to-moderate asthma were(More)
BACKGROUND The efficacy of inhaled salmeterol plus fluticasone propionate (SFC) in patients with severe or very severe COPD is well documented. However, there are only limited data about the influence of GOLD severity staging on the effectiveness of SFC, particularly in patients with milder disease. METHODS TORCH was a 3-year, double-blind,(More)
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are important in reducing exacerbation frequency associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, little is known about the risk of associated infections. In a post hoc analysis of the TOwards a Revolution in COPD Health (TORCH) study, we analysed and identified potential risk factors for adverse event(More)
We investigated the impact of season relative to other determinants of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation frequency in a long-term international study of patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) <60% predicted. COPD exacerbations were defined by worsening symptoms requiring systemic corticosteroids and/or antibiotics(More)
BACKGROUND Increased variation in peak expiratory flow (PEF) is characteristic of poorly controlled asthma, and measurement of diurnal variability of PEF has been recommended for assessment of asthma severity, including during exacerbations. We aimed to test whether asthma exacerbations had the same PEF characteristics as poor asthma control. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Approximately 210 million people are estimated to have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] worldwide. The burden of disease is known to be high, though less is known about those of a younger age. The aim of this study was to investigate the wider personal, economic and societal burden of COPD on a cross country working-age cohort. (More)
The aim of this study was to determine whether outcomes in poorly controlled asthma can be further improved with a starting dose of inhaled budesonide higher than that recommended in international guidelines. The study had a parallel-group design and included 61 subjects with poorly controlled asthma, randomized to receive 3,200 microg or 1,600 microg(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about factors that determine health status decline in clinical trials of COPD. OBJECTIVES To examine health status changes over 3 years in the TORCH study of salmeterol+fluticasone propionate (SFC) vs. salmeterol alone, fluticasone propionate alone or placebo. METHODS St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was(More)