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During cellularization, the Drosophila embryo undergoes a large-scale cytokinetic event that packages thousands of syncytial nuclei into individual cells, resulting in the de novo formation of an epithelial monolayer in the cortex of the embryo. The formation of adherens junctions is one of the many aspects of epithelial polarity that is established during(More)
The inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is critically involved in shaping neuronal responses to simple and complex acoustic stimuli in the central auditory structure, the inferior colliculus (IC). Studies in rat and human suggest that age-related changes in markers for GABA neurotransmission occur in the IC. In particular, these(More)
Since cerebral ischemia increases expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and exogenous VEGF can aggravate BBB disruption in cerebral ischemia, we hypothesized that inhibition of endogenous VEGF would attenuate BBB disruption. To test this hypothesis, rats were mechanically ventilated with isoflurane and a craniotomy (5 mm in diameter) was(More)
This study was performed to investigate whether WIN 55,212-2 (WIN), a cannabinoid receptor agonist, could attenuate blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in focal cerebral ischemia in rats and whether the CB 1 receptor antagonist rimonabant could prevent this attenuation. A total of 0.3 or 1 mg/kg of WIN was injected intravenously before and after permanent(More)
Previous work had demonstrated that there was elevated regional cerebral O2 consumption in the brains of a tuberous sclerosis model (Eker rat). We tested the hypothesis that the increased cerebral O2 consumption was related to an increased contribution of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors to the control of cerebral(More)
This study was performed to determine whether exogenous N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA) or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) would aggravate blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Forty-five minutes after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, one of the following patches was applied to the(More)
OBJECTIVE Deferoxamine, an iron chelator, is reported to induce hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) that leads to transcriptional activation of numerous genes including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that is known to increase blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. This study was performed to test whether deferoxamine would disrupt BBB further in(More)
OBJECTIVES This study was performed to compare the effects of exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in the ischemic cortex (IC) and non-ischemic contralateral cortex (CC) during the early stage of focal cerebral ischemia in rats. METHODS A middle cerebral(More)
To determine whether blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors such as NMDA or AMPA receptors would attenuate blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in focal cerebral ischemia, 15 min before middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, CGS-19755 or NBQX was injected intraperitoneally in rats. At 1 h after MCA occlusion, BBB permeability was determined by(More)
BACKGROUND There are reports that opioid preconditioning induces opioid-receptor-dependent neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia. This experiment was performed to test whether pretreatment with fentanyl, a synthetic primary mu-opioid receptor agonist, would affect the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in focal cerebral ischemia in rats. METHODS(More)