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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent findings suggest a causative role of infections in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The extent of atherosclerosis and the prognosis of patients with atherosclerosis seem to be increased by the number of infections to which an individual has been exposed. In a prospective study, we evaluated the effect of 8 pathogens and the(More)
Background—An ankle-brachial index (ABI; ratio of ankle and brachial systolic blood pressure) Ͻ0.9 indicates peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events. The aim of the present study was to address the prognostic value of different methods of ABI calculation. Methods and Results—In 831 patients admitted with chest(More)
BACKGROUND Recent findings suggest a causative role of infections in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In hypothesizing an association between infectious agents and the development of atherosclerosis, we would expect a correlation to the extent of atherosclerosis. Moreover, this effect could be multiplied by the number of pathogens to which an individual(More)
BACKGROUND Interleukin (IL)-18 plays a key role in atherosclerosis and its complications. The present study investigated the genetic variability of 4 genes of the IL-18 system-IL18, IL18R1, IL18RAP, and IL18BP-in relation to circulating IL-18 levels and cardiovascular mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS Twenty-two polymorphisms were genotyped in 1288 patients(More)
BACKGROUND Prospective data relating previous exposure to cytomegalovirus (CMV) to the risk of cardiac mortality are controversial. We investigated the effect of previous exposure to CMV infection on the risk of future cardiac disease-related death in relation to an underlying inflammatory response. METHODS AND RESULTS coronary angiography was performed(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) can be taken to indicate early atherosclerosis, the presence of a carotid stenosis is a marker of a manifest(More)
BACKGROUND Work-privacy conflict (WPC) is no longer a rarity but constitutes a societal problem. The objectives of the present study were (1) to investigate the distribution and prevalence of WPC among the employed participants in the Gutenberg Health Study at baseline and (2) to study the dependence of WPC on a broad range of private life and occupational(More)
AIMS C-reactive protein and fibrinogen have been extensively studied and shown to be predictive for a first cardiovascular event in healthy individuals. We evaluated the potential clinical use of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen in patients already suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS In a substudy of the prospective(More)
The use of β-receptor blockers in peripheral arterial disease is controversial for their impact on vasomotor tone. The β-blocker nebivolol possesses vasodilating, endothelium-dependent, NO-releasing properties that might be beneficial in peripheral arterial disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects and tolerability of nebivolol in comparison(More)
Inflammation is the driving force in atherosclerosis. One central strategy in the treatment for PAD is the promotion of angiogenesis. Here, pro-angiogenic Tie-2-expressing monocytes (TEM) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) play a crucial role. Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is characterized by a severe, chronic inflammatory response; thus, progression of(More)