Christine E. Wall

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The purpose of this study is to test various hypotheses about balancing-side jaw muscle recruitment patterns during mastication, with a major focus on testing the hypothesis that symphyseal fusion in anthropoids is due mainly to vertically- and/or transversely-directed jaw muscle forces. Furthermore, as the balancing-side deep masseter has been shown to(More)
Many primates habitually feed on tree exudates such as gums and saps. Among these exudate feeders, Cebuella pygmaea, Callithrix spp., Phaner furcifer, and most likely Euoticus elegantulus elicit exudate flow by biting into trees with their anterior dentition. We define this behavior as gouging. Beyond the recent publication by Dumont ([1997] Am J Phys(More)
Biologists that study mammals continue to discuss the evolution of and functional variation in jaw-muscle activity during chewing. A major barrier to addressing these issues is collecting sufficient in vivo data to adequately capture neuromuscular variation in a clade. We combine data on jaw-muscle electromyography (EMG) collected during mastication from 14(More)
The major purpose of this study is to analyze anterior and posterior temporalis muscle force recruitment and firing patterns in various anthropoid and strepsirrhine primates. There are two specific goals for this project. First, we test the hypothesis that in addition to transversely directed muscle force, the evolution of symphyseal fusion in primates may(More)
There are numerous anthropological analyses concerning the importance of diet during human evolution. Diet is thought to have had a profound influence on the human phenotype, and dietary differences have been hypothesized to contribute to the dramatic morphological changes seen in modern humans as compared with non-human primates. Here, we attempt to(More)
We examined masseter recruitment and firing patterns during chewing in four adult ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), using electromyography (EMG). During chewing of tougher foods, the working-side superficial masseter tends to show, on average, 1.7 times more scaled EMG activity than the balancing-side superficial masseter. The working-side deep masseter(More)
Despite a large and multifaceted effort to understand the vast landscape of phenotypic data, their current form inhibits productive data analysis. The lack of a community-wide, consensus-based, human- and machine-interpretable language for describing phenotypes and their genomic and environmental contexts is perhaps the most pressing scientific bottleneck(More)
We examined masseter and temporalis recruitment and firing patterns during chewing in five male Belanger's treeshrews (Tupaia belangeri), using electromyography (EMG). During chewing, the working-side masseters tend to show almost three times more scaled EMG activity than the balancing-side masseters. Similarly, the working-side temporalis muscles have more(More)
It was proposed that the power stroke in primates has two distinct periods of occlusal contact, each with a characteristic motion of the mandibular molars relative to the maxillary molars. The two movements are called phase I and phase II, and they occur sequentially in that order (Kay and Hiiemae [1974] Am J. Phys. Anthropol. 40:227-256, Kay and Hiiemae(More)
The social brain hypothesis proposes that haplorhine primates have evolved relatively large brains for their body size primarily as an adaptation for living in complex social groups. Studies that support this hypothesis have shown a strong relationship between relative brain size and group size in these taxa. Recent reports suggest that this pattern is(More)