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Neural responses in primary visual cortex (area V1) are selective for the orientation and spatial frequency of luminance-modulated sinusoidal gratings. Selectivity could arise from enhancement of the cell's response by preferred stimuli, suppression by nonoptimal stimuli, or both. Here, we report that the majority of V1 neurons do not only elevate their(More)
Spatial frequency tuning in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (LGN) and primary visual cortex (V1) differ substantially. LGN responses are largely low-pass in spatial frequency, whereas the majority of V1 neurons have bandpass characteristics. To study this transformation in spatial selectivity, we measured the dynamics of spatial frequency(More)
It has been shown recently that neurons in V2 respond selectively to the edges of figures defined only by disparity (cyclopean edges). These responses are orientation selective, often preferring similar orientations for cyclopean and luminance contours, suggesting that they may support a cue-invariant representation of contours. Here, we investigate the(More)
BACKGROUND Personal health records (PHRs) are an important tool for empowering patients and stimulating health action. To date, the volitional adoption of publicly available PHRs by consumers has been low. This may be partly due to patient concerns about issues such as data security, accuracy of the clinical information stored in the PHR, and challenges(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse fetal outcomes such as preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA). Maternal influenza immunization may prevent these adverse infant outcomes during periods of influenza circulation. METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort study of live births within Kaiser Permanente(More)
Previous experiments have shown that V2 neurons respond to complex stimuli such as cyclopean edges (edges defined purely by binocular disparity), angles, and motion borders. It is currently unknown whether these responses are a simple consequence of converging inputs from a prior stage of processing (V1). Alternatively, they may identify edges in a way that(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether physicians who interact with their patients between office visits using secure messaging and phone provide better care for patients with diabetes when controlling for physician, patient and care center characteristics. DESIGN Retrospective study. SETTING Kaiser Permanente Mid-Atlantic States. PARTICIPANTS 174 Primary(More)
BACKGROUND Training is a critical part of health information technology implementations, but little emphasis is placed on post-implementation training to support day-to-day activities. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of post-implementation training on key electronic health record activities. METHODS Based on feedback from providers and(More)
BACKGROUND Multi-site health sciences research is becoming more common, as it enables investigation of rare outcomes and diseases and new healthcare innovations. Multi-site research usually involves the transfer of large amounts of research data between collaborators, which increases the potential for accidental disclosures of protected health information(More)
BACKGROUND Pregnant women were at increased risk for serious outcomes of 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (influenza A[H1N1]pdm09) infection, but little is known about the overall impact of the pandemic on neonatal and maternal outcomes. METHODS We identified live births that occurred from 1 July 2008 through 31 May 2010 in 5 Kaiser Permanente(More)