Christine Dwyer

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In the pig, undernutrition in utero causes low birth weight, a decrease in muscle fiber number, and a reduction in postnatal growth rate. The effect on fiber number is mediated via a reduced secondary fiber population. Within a litter of pigs, lighter-weight pigs have probably suffered some deficit in muscle fiber number. In an attempt to improve the number(More)
IL-12 is a heterodimeric cytokine that was identified on the basis of its ability to synergize with IL-2 in the induction of cytotoxic effector cells and was originally called cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor (CLMF). IL-12 was also found to stimulate the proliferation of PHA-activated lymphoblasts which were greater than 90% CD3+ T cells. In this(More)
Fast-growing strains of pigs and of other animals tend to have more muscle fibers than do slow-growing strains. The relationship between fiber number and growth rate was extended by examining pigs within the same strain. Seven litters of pigs (n = 66) were weighted at monthly intervals from birth to approximately 80 kg. The semitendinosus muscle was removed(More)
The insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and -II) are potential mediators of the effects of maternal undernutrition on fetal growth and muscle development. The effects of a 40% reduction in maternal feed intake on serum levels of the IGFs, the thyroid hormones and cortisol, were investigated for the last two trimesters (day 25 to birth). This level of(More)
A 40% restriction in maternal feed intake throughout gestation in the guinea-pig results in a 35% reduction in fetal body weight at term and a 20-25% reduction in muscle fibre number. To investigate the effect of maternal undernutrition in early gestation, four nutritional treatments were used: controls-pregnant females fed ad libitum throughout gestation;(More)
Nutritional restriction during muscle fibre number development invariably has a more detrimental effect on the biceps brachii than on the soleus. The difference may be due to the relative proportions of fibre types in the muscles or the anatomical location of the muscles. To distinguish between the effects of location and fibre type the biceps (fast,(More)
Cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor (CLMF) is a disulfide-bonded heterodimeric lymphokine that (i) acts as a growth factor for activated T cells independent of interleukin 2 and (ii) synergizes with suboptimal concentrations of interleukin 2 to induce lymphokine-activated killer cells. We now report the cloning and expression of both human CLMF subunit(More)
Human IL-12 (NK cell stimulatory factor, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor) is a heterodimeric cytokine that can act as a growth factor for activated human T and NK cells, enhance the lytic activity of human NK/lymphokine-activated killer cells, and stimulate the production of IFN-gamma by resting human PBMC. Because in our hands, human IL-12 did not(More)
Mo(p40)2 is a potent IL-12 antagonist that interacts strongly with the beta 1 subunit of the IL-12R to block binding of moIL-12 to the high-affinity mouse IL-12R. Mo(p40)2, alone or in synergy with the 2B5 mAb specific for the moIL-12 heterodimer, blocked IL-12-induced responses in vitro, Mo(p40)2 was thus used alone or with 2B5 mAb to examine the role of(More)
Fetal growth is known to be correlated with the size of the placenta and the exchange surface area. Reduction in the growth of the materno-fetal exchange surface areas may be a mechanism by which the effects of maternal undernutrition on fetal growth are mediated. In the compact placenta of the guinea pig the exchange surface is equivalent to the peripheral(More)