Christine Chevillon

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Resistance to organophosphate (OP) insecticide in the mosquito Culex pipiens has been studied for ca. 30 years. This example of micro-evolution has been thoroughly investigated as an opportunity to assess precisely both the new adapted phenotypes and the associated genetic changes. A notable feature is that OP resistance is achieved with few genes, and(More)
Parasites represent a great proportion of the world's living organisms and are of overwhelming significance because of their impact on hosts (evolutionarily, medically, agronomical and economically). The knowledge of the population biology of such organisms is thus of fundamental importance to population biologists. Most parasites cannot be studied by(More)
Insecticide resistance genes have developed in a wide variety of insects in response to heavy chemical application. Few of these examples of adaptation in response to rapid environmental change have been studied both at the population level and at the gene level. One of these is the evolution of the overproduced esterases that are involved in resistance to(More)
To determine the outcome of the combined effects of gene flow, genetic drift, and selection on the evolution of insecticide-resistance genes in the mosquito Culex pipiens, samples were collected along three transects crossing treated and nontreated areas in northern Spain and southern France. Electrophoretic polymorphisms of five presumably neutral genes(More)
Two ecotypes have been described for Culex pipiens mosquitoes of the temperate zone: a human commensal type and a feral type, but their degree of evolutionary differentiation and taxonomic status are still unclear. The commensal form is characterized by life-history traits probably adaptive to underground man-made environments. This situation has sometimes(More)
M of the evolution of resistance to both xenobiotics (Box 1) (e.g. pesticides and drugs) and pathogens (Box 1) often share the central assumption that resistance is associated with a fitness cost. This assumption is based on three premises broadly derived from the fields of evolutionary biology, population genetics and physiology. First, the acquisition of(More)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus. Although primarily African and zoonotic, it is known chiefly for its non-African large urban outbreaks during which it is transmitted by the same vectors as those of Dengue viruses. Unlike Dengue viruses, CHIKV displays a re-emergence pattern that closely depends on long-distance migrations(More)
In several insects, there appears to be a high fitness cost associated with insecticide resistance genes during the overwintering period. In order to understand when and how this cost operates, all mosquitoes entering a natural cave for overwintering were regularly sampled, and their resistance genes at two loci (Ester and Ace.1) were individually(More)
Today, we are witnessing changes in the spatial distribution and abundance of many species, including ticks and their associated pathogens. Evidence that these changes are primarily due to climate change, habitat modifications, and the globalisation of human activities are accumulating. Changes in the distribution of ticks and their invasion into new(More)
Traditional systems account for 95 % of the livestock produced in Burkina Faso. Tick infestation hampers livestock productivity in this area. However, little information exists on tick-control practices used by livestock farmers. We interviewed 60 stockbreeders working in traditional farming systems to obtain the first data on tick-control practices.(More)