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UNLABELLED AIMS OF INVESTIGATION: To quantify the magnitude of putative gender differences in experimental pressure pain threshold (PPT), and to establish the relevance of repeated measurements to any such differences. METHODS Two separate studies were undertaken. A pressure algometer was used in both studies to assess PPT in the first dorsal interosseous(More)
UNLABELLED This study evaluated the effects of varying frequency, intensity and stimulation site, of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in an experimental model of pain. In a double-blind design 240 volunteers were randomised to one of six experimental TENS groups, a sham TENS or control (n=30 per group; gender balanced). Two TENS(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate interrater reliability using 5 newly trained observers in the assessment of pressure pain threshold (PPT) using a fixed-angle algometer. METHODS The study design comprised 2 phases. Phase 1: 5 undergraduate physical therapists were trained in algometry at a predefined angle, at a rate of 5 Newtons (N)/s, to the first dorsal(More)
OBJECTIVES No previous study has adequately demonstrated the test-retest reliability of the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, yet it is increasingly being used as a measure of pain. This study evaluates the test-retest reliability in patients with osteoarthritis. METHODS A prospective, observational cohort study was undertaken using serial evaluation(More)
The intention-to-treat (ITT) approach to randomized controlled trials analyzes data on the basis of treatment assignment, not treatment receipt. Alternative approaches make comparisons according to the treatment received at the end of the trial (as-treated analysis) or using only subjects who did not deviate from the assigned treatment (adherers-only(More)
In this paper we examine the relationship between genetic algorithms (GAs) and traditional methods of experimental design. This was motivated by an investigation into the problem caused by epistasis in the implementation and application of GAs to optimization problems: one which has long been acknowledged to have an important innuence on GA performance.(More)
OBJECTIVE This study investigates the immediate effects of flexion mobilizations with movement techniques (MWMs) on spinal range of movement in individuals with low back pain and also their impact on pain. A preliminary attempt has been made to describe the clinical profiles of subjects who were thought to benefit from MWMs. METHOD A small-scale(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether feedback inducing an external focus (EF) of attention (about movement effects) was more effective for retraining reach-to-grasp after stroke compared with feedback inducing an internal focus (IF) of attention (about body movement). It was predicted that inducing an EF of attention would be more beneficial to motor(More)
STUDY DESIGN Descriptive survey methodology employed a SurveyMonkey online questionnaire. OBJECTIVE To evaluate UK National Health Service physiotherapy practice for lumbar spinal fusion surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA An increasing rate of surgery and high level of patient dis-satisfaction focus attention to rehabilitation of patients undergoing(More)
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a popular form of electrostimulation. Despite an extensive research base, there remains no consensus regarding the parameter selection required to achieve maximal hypoalgesic effects. The aim of this double blind, sham-controlled study was to investigate the relative hypoalgesic effects of different TENS(More)