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UNLABELLED AIMS OF INVESTIGATION: To quantify the magnitude of putative gender differences in experimental pressure pain threshold (PPT), and to establish the relevance of repeated measurements to any such differences. METHODS Two separate studies were undertaken. A pressure algometer was used in both studies to assess PPT in the first dorsal interosseous(More)
Changes in upper body posture, colloquially termed forward head posture (FHP), are considered to be an etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS). The literature suggests that postural deviations associated with FHP follow distinct patterns involving an increase in the thoracic kyphosis angle and a downwardly rotated,(More)
In this paper we examine the relationship between genetic algorithms (GAs) and traditional methods of experimental design. This was motivated by an investigation into the problem caused by epistasis in the implementation and application of GAs to optimization problems: one which has long been acknowledged to have an important innuence on GA performance.(More)
UNLABELLED This study evaluated the effects of varying frequency, intensity and stimulation site, of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in an experimental model of pain. In a double-blind design 240 volunteers were randomised to one of six experimental TENS groups, a sham TENS or control (n=30 per group; gender balanced). Two TENS(More)
OBJECTIVES No previous study has adequately demonstrated the test-retest reliability of the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, yet it is increasingly being used as a measure of pain. This study evaluates the test-retest reliability in patients with osteoarthritis. METHODS A prospective, observational cohort study was undertaken using serial evaluation(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether feedback inducing an external focus (EF) of attention (about movement effects) was more effective for retraining reach-to-grasp after stroke compared with feedback inducing an internal focus (IF) of attention (about body movement). It was predicted that inducing an EF of attention would be more beneficial to motor(More)
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a popular form of electrostimulation. Despite an extensive research base, there remains no consensus regarding the parameter selection required to achieve maximal hypoalgesic effects. The aim of this double blind, sham-controlled study was to investigate the relative hypoalgesic effects of different TENS(More)
In an earlier paper we examined the relationship between genetic algorithms (GAs) and traditional methods of experimental design. This was motivated by an investigation into the problems caused by epistasis in the implementation and application of GAs to optimization problems. We showed how this viewpoint enables us to gain further insights into the(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate interrater reliability using 5 newly trained observers in the assessment of pressure pain threshold (PPT) using a fixed-angle algometer. METHODS The study design comprised 2 phases. Phase 1: 5 undergraduate physical therapists were trained in algometry at a predefined angle, at a rate of 5 Newtons (N)/s, to the first dorsal(More)
This study quantitatively describes differences between participants with hemiparetic stroke and age-matched healthy participants in axial body segment and gait kinematics during a direction change task. Participants were required to change walking direction by 45 degrees, either to their left or right, at the midpoint of a 6-m path. Participants were(More)