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Orthostatic intolerance occurs commonly after spaceflight, and important aspects of the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We studied 14 individuals supine and standing before and after three space shuttle missions of 9-14 days. After spaceflight, 9 of the 14 (64%) crew members could not complete a 10-min stand test that all completed preflight. Pre- and(More)
BACKGROUND Orthostatic syncope is usually attributed to cerebral hypoperfusion secondary to systemic hemodynamic collapse. Recent research in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope has suggested that cerebral vasoconstriction may occur during orthostatic hypotension, compromising cerebral autoregulation and possibly contributing to the loss of(More)
The roles of absolute and relative oxygen uptake (VO2 and percent of muscle group specific VO2 max) as determinants of the cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to exercise over a wide range of active muscle mass have not previously been defined. Six healthy men performed four types of dynamic exercise--one-arm curl, one-arm cranking, and one- and(More)
Orthostatic intolerance is common when astronauts return to Earth: after brief spaceflight, up to two-thirds are unable to remain standing for 10 min. Previous research suggests that susceptible individuals are unable to increase their systemic vascular resistance and plasma noradrenaline concentrations above pre-flight upright levels. In this study, we(More)
The roles of the mode of contraction (i.e., dynamic or static) and the active muscle mass as determinants of the cardiovascular responses to exercise were studied. Six healthy men performed static handgrip (SHG), dynamic handgrip (DHG), static two-knee extension (SKE), and dynamic two-knee extension (DKE) to local muscular fatigue in approximately 6 min.(More)
This paper describes a reliable multiple sample Evans Blue dye dilution technique and a Pascal program which computes plasma and blood volume on the basis of this technique. The program performs needed corrections and dye disappearance curve fitting. It provides menu-driven facilities for data correction, graphic display of the dye disappearance curve, and(More)
The cardiovascular system appears to adapt well to microgravity but is compromised on reestablishment of gravitational forces leading to orthostatic intolerance and a reduction in work capacity. However, maximal systemic oxygen uptake (Vo2) and transport, which may be viewed as a measure of the functional integrity of the cardiovascular system and its(More)
A modified acetylene rebreathing technique for measuring cardiac output has been developed utilizing a mass spectrometer for measuring gas concentrations. Helium serves as an indicator of mixing and system volume. The disappearance rate of acetylene is proportional to pulmonary capillary blood flow, which is taken as an index of cardiac output. The method(More)
Gravity affects cardiac filling pressure and intravascular fluid distribution significantly. A major central fluid shift occurs when all hydrostatic gradients are abolished on entry into microgravity (microG). Understanding the dynamics of this shift requires continuous monitoring of cardiac filling pressure; central venous pressure (CVP) measurement is the(More)
The causes of orthostatic intolerance following prolonged bed rest, head-down tilt or exposure to zero gravity are not completely understood. One possible contributing mechanism is increased venous compliance and peripheral venous pooling. The present study attempted to determine what proportion of the increased calf volume during progressive venous(More)