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The status of the Archaea as one of the three primary Domains emphasizes the importance of understanding their molecular fundamentals. Basic transcription in the Archaea resembles eucaryal transcription. However, little is known about transcriptional regulation. We have taken an in vivo approach, using genetics to address transcriptional regulation in the(More)
Murine epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) have been demonstrated to stimulate a vigorous T cell response to Leishmania major, a cause of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. It was therefore of interest to analyze whether LC can take up viable parasites. Epidermal cells were obtained from mouse ear skin for incubation with L. major and subsequent detection of(More)
Murine epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) have been shown to internalize Leishmania major, a cause of human cutaneous leishmaniasis, and to stimulate a vigorous parasite-specific T cell response. The present study emphasizes the critical role of LC in leishmaniasis by documenting directly that LC have the ability to transport L. major from the skin to the(More)
In Leishmania-infected macrophages (M phi), the formation of reactive nitrogen intermediates by the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is critical for the killing of the intracellular parasites. We have recently shown that, in addition to M phi, epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) can phagocytose Leishmania major, but they do not allow parasite(More)
We designed a transposon insertion mutagenesis system for Methanococcus species and used it to make mutations in and around a nifH gene in Methanococcus maripaludis. The transposon Mudpur was constructed with a gene for puromycin resistance that is expressed and selectable in Methanococcus species. A 15.6-kb nifH region from M. maripaludis cloned in a(More)
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is initiated by the bite of an infected sandfly and inoculation of Leishmania major parasites into the mammalian skin. Macrophages are known to play a central role in the course of infection because they are the prime host cells and function as antigen-presenting cells (APC) for induction of the cell-mediated immune response.(More)
Nitrogen fixation occurs in two domains, Archaea and Bacteria. We have characterized a nif (nitrogen fixation) gene cluster in the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis. Sequence analysis revealed eight genes, six with sequence similarity to known nif genes and two with sequence similarity to glnB. The gene order, nifH, ORF105 (similar to glnB),(More)
In order to evaluate the role of CD8+ T cells in cutaneous leishmaniasis, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-deficient mice of C57BL/6 background lacking functional CD4+ T cells were infected with Leishmania major. In contrast to C57BL/6 wild-type mice which are resistant to infection with L. major, these mice developed severe skin lesions that(More)
IL-4 transgenic mice of C3H genetic background expressing IL-4 under the control of an MHC class I promoter were infected with Leishmania major and the immune response was assessed. In contrast to littermate control mice, the transgenic mice were unable to restrict the growth of the parasites as shown by the strong increase in footpad swelling and parasite(More)