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The common ice plant is a facultative halophyte in which Crassulacean acid metabolism, a metabolic adaptation to arid environments, can be induced by irrigating plants with high levels of NaCl or by drought. This stress-induced metabolic transition is accompanied by up to a 50-fold increase in the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase). To(More)
Responses to drought and salinity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Tokak) were monitored by microarray hybridization of 1463 DNA elements derived from cDNA libraries of 6 and 10 h drought-stressed plants. Functional identities indicated that many cDNAs in these libraries were associated with drought stress. About 38% of the transcripts were novel and(More)
The pathway from glucose 6-phosphate (G 6-P) to myoinositol 1-phosphate (Ins 1-P) and myo-inositol (Ins) is essential for the synthesis of various metabolites. In the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (common ice plant), two enzymes, myo-inositol O-methyltransferase (IMT1) and ononitol epimerase (OEP1), extend this pathway and lead to the accumulation(More)
Seawater-strength salt stress of the ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) initially results in wilting, but full turgor is restored within approximately 2 days. We are interested in a mechanistic explanation for this behavior and, as a requisite for in-depth biochemical studies, have begun to analyze gene expression changes in roots coincident with the(More)
In the indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) a cDNA was characterized that encoded OsAKT1 homologous to inward-rectifying potassium channels of the AKT/KAT subfamily. Transcript analysis located OsAKT1 predominantly in roots with low abundance in leaves. Cell-specificity of OsAKT expression was analyzed by in situ hybridizations. In roots, strongest signals were(More)
Transcripts of altered abundance in RNA from unstressed and 500 mm salt-shocked Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (common ice plant) were detected by reverse-transcription differential display (RT-DD). One transcript, Rip1, was of very low abundance in unstressed plants and was strongly induced by stress. RNA blot hybridizations showed strong induction and a(More)
Ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) is a facultative halophyte that responds to water stress in the form of drought or high salinity by switching from C(3) photosynthesis to Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a physiological adaptation that increases water conservation. Although CAM is clearly environmentally controlled, and reversible upon removal(More)
Much of the gene regulatory circuitry of phage lambda centers on a complex region called the O(R) region. This approximately 100-bp region is densely packed with regulatory sites, including two promoters and three repressor-binding sites. The dense packing of this region is likely to impose severe constraints on its ability to change during evolution,(More)
Complex gene regulatory circuits contain many features that are likely to contribute to their operation. It is unclear, however, whether all these features are necessary for proper circuit behavior or whether certain ones are refinements that make the circuit work better but are dispensable for qualitatively normal behavior. We have addressed this question(More)
Carotenoids are essential constituents of the light-harvesting and light-protective systems of photosynthetic organisms. The biochemistry of carotenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotes is known, whereas evidence for the genes specifying this biosynthetic pathway is scant. We report here the nucleotide sequence and expression of a gene likely encoding crtE(More)