Christine A Raines

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Past increases in yield potential of wheat have largely resulted from improvements in harvest index rather than increased biomass. Further large increases in harvest index are unlikely, but an opportunity exists for increasing productive biomass and harvestable grain. Photosynthetic capacity and efficiency are bottlenecks to raising productivity and there(More)
Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Samsun) plants with reduced levels of the Calvin cycle enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase; EC were produced using an antisense construct in which the expression of a tobacco SBPase cDNA clone was driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter. The reduction in SBPase protein levels(More)
Activity of the Calvin cycle enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) was increased by overexpression of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cDNA in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. In plants with increased SBPase activity, photosynthetic rates were increased, higher levels of Suc and starch accumulated during the photoperiod, and an increase(More)
Field-grown Miscanthus x giganteus maintains high photosynthetic quantum yields and biomass productivity in cool temperate climates. It is related to maize (Zea mays) and uses the same NADP-malic enzyme C(4) pathway. This study tests the hypothesis that M. x giganteus, in contrast to maize, forms photosynthetically competent leaves at low temperatures with(More)
We show here that light stimulates the expression of nuclear genes in wheat leaves for chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and describe a sequence of amino acids in this enzyme which may be responsible, via thioredoxin, for the light regulation of its activity. This data results from (a) our isolation and characterization of a cDNA of this(More)
The realization that crop yields are reaching a plateau, while population increases continue at pace, has placed manipulation of photosynthesis in a central position to achieve increases in yield. Increasing flux through the C3 cycle will be a major focus of this effort. Through application of new technologies togetherwith novel modeling approaches,(More)
We have isolated and sequenced cDNA clones containing the entire coding region of both the chloroplast and cytosolic versions of phosphoglycerate kinase from wheat. Comparison of these sequences reveals a higher than expected level of similarity between the nucleic acids and encoded proteins. Analysis of this data in relation to that for phosphoglycerate(More)
The limitation to photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in C3 plants in hot, dry environments is dominated by ribulose 1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) because CO2 availability is restricted and photorespiration is stimulated. Using a combination of genetic engineering and transgenic technology, three approaches to reduce photorespiration have(More)
The sequence of reactions in the Calvin cycle, and the biochemical characteristics of the enzymes involved, have been known for some time. However, the extent to which any individual enzyme controls the rate of carbon fixation has been a long standing question. Over the last 10 years, antisense transgenic plants have been used as tools to address this and(More)
We present observations of photosynthetic carbon dioxide assimilation, and leaf starch content from genetically modified tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants in which the activity of the Calvin cycle enzyme, sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase, is reduced by an antisense construct. The measurements were made on leaves of varying ages and used to calculate the(More)