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The kinase pathway comprising RAS, RAF, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) is activated in most human tumours, often through gain-of-function mutations of RAS and RAF family members. Using small-molecule inhibitors of MEK and an integrated genetic and pharmacologic analysis, we find that mutation of(More)
We present a novel method for deriving network models from molecular profiles of perturbed cellular systems. The network models aim to predict quantitative outcomes of combinatorial perturbations, such as drug pair treatments or multiple genetic alterations. Mathematically, we represent the system by a set of nodes, representing molecular concentrations or(More)
Mutations in RAS proteins occur widely in human cancer. Prompted by the confirmation of KRAS mutation as a predictive biomarker of response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapies, limited clinical testing for RAS pathway mutations has recently been adopted. We performed a multiplatform genomic analysis to characterize, in a nonbiased(More)
Melanoma is a disease characterized by lesions that activate ERK. Although 70% of cutaneous melanomas harbor activating mutations in the BRAF and NRAS genes, the alterations that drive tumor progression in the remaining 30% are largely undefined. Vemurafenib, a selective inhibitor of RAF kinases, has clinical utility restricted to BRAF-mutant tumors. MEK(More)
Hyperactivated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling is common in human cancer and is often the result of activating mutations in BRAF, RAS, and upstream receptor tyrosine kinases. To characterize the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)/ERK dependence of lung cancers harboring BRAF kinase domain mutations, we screened a large(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation is a frequent event in human cancer and is often the result of activating mutations in the BRAF and RAS oncogenes. Targeted inhibitors of BRAF and its downstream effectors are in various stages of preclinical and clinical development. These agents offer the possibility of greater efficacy and less(More)
We present a powerful experimental-computational technology for inferring network models that predict the response of cells to perturbations, and that may be useful in the design of combinatorial therapy against cancer. The experiments are systematic series of perturbations of cancer cell lines by targeted drugs, singly or in combination. The response to(More)
PURPOSE Metastatic uveal melanoma represents the most common intraocular malignancy with very poor prognosis and no effective treatments. Oncogenic mutations in the G-protein α-subunit q and 11 have been described in about 85% of uveal melanomas and confer constitutive activation. Multiple signaling pathways are induced as a consequence of GNAQ/11(More)
Resistance to targeted cancer therapies is an important clinical problem. The discovery of anti-resistance drug combinations is challenging as resistance can arise by diverse escape mechanisms. To address this challenge, we improved and applied the experimental-computational perturbation biology method. Using statistical inference, we build network models(More)
Drugs that inhibit the MAPK pathway have therapeutic benefit in melanoma, but responses vary between patients, for reasons that are still largely unknown. Here we aim at explaining this variability using pre- and post-MEK inhibition transcriptional profiles in a panel of melanoma cell lines. We found that most targets are context specific, under the(More)