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The recordable cerebral activity (readiness-potential, RP) that precedes a freely voluntary, fully endogenous motor act was directly compared with the reportable time (W) for appearance of the subjective experience of 'wanting' or intending to act. The onset of cerebral activity clearly preceded by at least several hundred milliseconds the reported time of(More)
Pre-event potentials were compared in the same subject, for 3 types of forewarned events, in which the foreperiod for orienting or attention began several seconds before the event. All of these trials involved similar non-motor components (expectancy, attentiveness, general orienting to a salient stimulus) but differed in whether motor or non-motor(More)
The nature of readiness-potentials (RPs) that may be associated with fully endogenous, 'freely' voluntary acts was investigated. Restriction on when to act were eliminated and instructions fostered 'spontaneity.' The 'self-initiated' RPs exhibited in these conditions were categorizable into two (possibly three) types, all of which could be exhibited by the(More)
A 'time-on' theory to explain the cerebral distinction between conscious and unconscious mental functions proposes that a substantial minimum duration ('time-on') of appropriate neuronal activations up to about 0.5 s is required to elicit conscious sensory experience, but that durations distinctly below that minimum can mediate sensory detection without(More)
Critically ill preterm infants are often exposed to stressors that may affect neurodevelopment and behavior. We reported that exposure of neonatal mice to stressors or morphine produced impairment of adult morphine-rewarded conditioned place preference (CPP) and altered hippocampal gene expression. We now further this line of inquiry by examining both(More)
Stimulation of the locus coeruleus, or in the vicinity of this nucleus or of its ascending tracts, could markedly suppress the appearance of epileptiform-like ECoG bursts. The latter were induced in rats by a subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazol. Electrode sites were identified histologically. A unilateral stimulus suppressed bursts bilaterally. An(More)
BACKGROUND Hospitalized preterm infants may experience pain and stress, and narcotics are often administered to lessen their suffering. However, prolonged narcotic therapy may be detrimental during neonatal brain development. Using a rat model combining neonatal stress and morphine, we found that neonatal morphine impaired adult learning. Here we describe a(More)
Critically ill preterm infants experience multiple stressors while hospitalized. Morphine is commonly prescribed to ameliorate their pain and stress. We hypothesized that neonatal stress will have a dose-dependent effect on hippocampal gene expression, and these effects will be altered by morphine treatment. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to five treatment(More)
Stimulating electrodes were chronically implanted unilaterally (in 1975-1977) in the vicinity of the locus coeruleus (LC) in three patients, one with cerebral palsy-spastic quadriplegia, two with epilepsy (one grand mal, one psychomotor). Effective excitation of efferent LC axons was indicated by measuring rises in 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol in(More)
BACKGROUND Critically ill neonates experience multiple stressors during hospitalization. Opioids are commonly prescribed to ameliorate their pain and stress. However, the enduring effects of stress and opioids are not understood. The kappa opioid system is important in the mediation of stress in adults, but little is known about its function in neonates. (More)