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The recordable cerebral activity (readiness-potential, RP) that precedes a freely voluntary, fully endogenous motor act was directly compared with the reportable time (W) for appearance of the subjective experience of 'wanting' or intending to act. The onset of cerebral activity clearly preceded by at least several hundred milliseconds the reported time of(More)
Pre-event potentials were compared in the same subject, for 3 types of forewarned events, in which the foreperiod for orienting or attention began several seconds before the event. All of these trials involved similar non-motor components (expectancy, attentiveness, general orienting to a salient stimulus) but differed in whether motor or non-motor(More)
The nature of readiness-potentials (RPs) that may be associated with fully endogenous, 'freely' voluntary acts was investigated. Restriction on when to act were eliminated and instructions fostered 'spontaneity.' The 'self-initiated' RPs exhibited in these conditions were categorizable into two (possibly three) types, all of which could be exhibited by the(More)
A 'time-on' theory to explain the cerebral distinction between conscious and unconscious mental functions proposes that a substantial minimum duration ('time-on') of appropriate neuronal activations up to about 0.5 s is required to elicit conscious sensory experience, but that durations distinctly below that minimum can mediate sensory detection without(More)
OBJECTIVES High-dose recombinant erythropoietin is neuroprotective in animal models of neonatal brain injury. Extremely low birth weight infants are at high risk for brain injury and neurodevelopmental problems and might benefit from recombinant erythropoietin. We designed a phase I/II trial to test the safety and determine the pharmacokinetics of high-dose(More)
The increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during hypoxia in fetal sheep at 0.6 gestation is less than the increase at 0.9 gestation when normalized for differences in baseline CBF and oxygen consumption. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) catalytic activity increases threefold during this period of development. We tested the hypothesis that administration of(More)
Erythropoietin (Epo) decreases neuronal injury and cell death in vitro and in vivo. To lay the groundwork for use of Epo as a potential therapy for brain injury, we tested the hypothesis that systemic dosing of high-dose recombinant Epo (rEpo) would result in neuroprotective rEpo concentrations in the spinal fluid of adult and developing animals. This(More)
There are scant data regarding the development of cerebrovascular autoregulation in fetuses. We tested the hypothesis that a decrease in cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) at reduced cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is absent in midgestation and near-term fetal sheep. Catheters were chronically implanted for microsphere determination of cerebral blood flow(More)
Alcohol is detrimental to the developing brain and remains the leading cause of mental retardation in developed countries. The mechanism of alcohol brain damage remains elusive. Studies of neurological problems in adults have focused on alcohol's cerebrovascular effects, because alcoholism is a major risk factor for stroke and cerebrovascular injuries.(More)
Preterm infants are often treated with intravenous dopamine to increase mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). However, there are few data regarding cerebrovascular responses of developing animals to dopamine infusions. We studied eight near-term and eight preterm chronically catheterized unanesthetized fetal sheep. We measured cerebral blood flow and(More)