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The recordable cerebral activity (readiness-potential, RP) that precedes a freely voluntary, fully endogenous motor act was directly compared with the reportable time (W) for appearance of the subjective experience of 'wanting' or intending to act. The onset of cerebral activity clearly preceded by at least several hundred milliseconds the reported time of(More)
Pre-event potentials were compared in the same subject, for 3 types of forewarned events, in which the foreperiod for orienting or attention began several seconds before the event. All of these trials involved similar non-motor components (expectancy, attentiveness, general orienting to a salient stimulus) but differed in whether motor or non-motor(More)
The nature of readiness-potentials (RPs) that may be associated with fully endogenous, 'freely' voluntary acts was investigated. Restriction on when to act were eliminated and instructions fostered 'spontaneity.' The 'self-initiated' RPs exhibited in these conditions were categorizable into two (possibly three) types, all of which could be exhibited by the(More)
A 'time-on' theory to explain the cerebral distinction between conscious and unconscious mental functions proposes that a substantial minimum duration ('time-on') of appropriate neuronal activations up to about 0.5 s is required to elicit conscious sensory experience, but that durations distinctly below that minimum can mediate sensory detection without(More)
The increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during hypoxia in fetal sheep at 0.6 gestation is less than the increase at 0.9 gestation when normalized for differences in baseline CBF and oxygen consumption. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) catalytic activity increases threefold during this period of development. We tested the hypothesis that administration of(More)
Alcohol is detrimental to the developing brain and remains the leading cause of mental retardation in developed countries. The mechanism of alcohol brain damage remains elusive. Studies of neurological problems in adults have focused on alcohol's cerebrovascular effects, because alcoholism is a major risk factor for stroke and cerebrovascular injuries.(More)
Preterm infants are often treated with intravenous dopamine to increase mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). However, there are few data regarding cerebrovascular responses of developing animals to dopamine infusions. We studied eight near-term and eight preterm chronically catheterized unanesthetized fetal sheep. We measured cerebral blood flow and(More)
Stimulating electrodes were chronically implanted unilaterally (in 1975-1977) in the vicinity of the locus coeruleus (LC) in three patients, one with cerebral palsy-spastic quadriplegia, two with epilepsy (one grand mal, one psychomotor). Effective excitation of efferent LC axons was indicated by measuring rises in 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol in(More)
Critically ill preterm infants are often exposed to stressors that may affect neurodevelopment and behavior. We reported that exposure of neonatal mice to stressors or morphine produced impairment of adult morphine-rewarded conditioned place preference (CPP) and altered hippocampal gene expression. We now further this line of inquiry by examining both(More)
Stimulation of the locus coeruleus, or in the vicinity of this nucleus or of its ascending tracts, could markedly suppress the appearance of epileptiform-like ECoG bursts. The latter were induced in rats by a subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazol. Electrode sites were identified histologically. A unilateral stimulus suppressed bursts bilaterally. An(More)