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The modeling of forces during needle insertion into soft tissue is important for accurate surgical simulation, preoperative planning, and intelligent robotic assistance for percutaneous therapies. We present a force model for needle insertion and experimental procedures for acquiring data from ex vivo tissue to populate that model. Data were collected from(More)
The use of higher plants as the basis for a biological life support system that regenerates the atmosphere, purifies water, and produces food has been proposed for long duration space missions. The objective of these experiments was to determine what effects microgravity (microg) had on chloroplast development, carbohydrate metabolism and gene expression in(More)
We present the tip and friction forces acting on a needle during penetration into a canine prostate, independently measured by a 7-axis load cell newly developed for this purpose. This experimental apparatus clarifies the mechanics of needle penetration, potentially improving the development of surgical simulations. The behavior of both tip and friction(More)
Two experiments were performed to determine the effects of friction and needle geometry during robotic needle insertion into soft tissues. In Experiment I, friction forces along the instrument axis were characterized during needle insertion into bovine liver under CT fluoroscopic imaging. Because the relative velocity of the tissue and needle affect viscous(More)
Force information from needle insertions was measured and modeled for use in robot-assisted percutaneous therapies. Data was collected on bovine livers using the Johns Hopkins University Steady Hand Robot, and modeled in three parts: force due to capsule stiffness, friction, and cutting. Capsule stiffness is modeled by a nonlinear spring model, friction by(More)
The purpose of this investigation was to identify when diagnostic testing and empirical antiviral therapy should be considered for adult patients requiring hospitalization during influenza seasons. During the 2007/8 influenza season, six acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area participated in active surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza(More)
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