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Neurotransmitter release from preganglionic parasympathetic neurons is resistant to inhibition by selective antagonists of L-, N-, P/Q-, R-, and T-type calcium channels. In this study, the effects of different omega-conotoxins from genus Conus were investigated on current flow-through cloned voltage-sensitive calcium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes(More)
Highly selective Ca(v)2.2 voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) inhibitors have emerged as a new class of therapeutics for the treatment of chronic and neuropathic pain. Cone snail venoms provided the first drug in class with FDA approval granted in 2005 to Prialt (omega-conotoxin MVIIA, Elan) for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Since this pioneering(More)
Omega-conotoxins are routinely used as selective inhibitors of different classes of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in excitable cells. In the present study, we examined the potent N-type VGCC antagonist omega-conotoxin CVID and non-selective N- and P/Q-type antagonist CVIB for their ability to block native VGCCs in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG)(More)
Disulfide-rich cyclic peptides have generated great interest in the development of peptide-based therapeutics due to their exceptional stability toward chemical, enzymatic, or thermal attack. In particular, they have been used as scaffolds onto which bioactive epitopes can be grafted to take advantage of the favorable biophysical properties of(More)
ProTx-II is a disulfide-rich peptide toxin from tarantula venom able to inhibit the human voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 (hNaV1.7), a channel reported to be involved in nociception, and thus it might have potential as a pain therapeutic. ProTx-II acts by binding to the membrane-embedded voltage sensor domain of hNaV1.7, but the precise peptide(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Antagonists of the N-type voltage gated calcium channel (VGCC), Cav 2.2, have a potentially important role in the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. ω-conotoxins, such MVIIA and CVID are effective in neuropathic pain models. CVID is reported to have a greater therapeutic index than MVIIA in neuropathic pain models, and it has been(More)
Mu-conotoxins are three-loop peptides produced by cone snails to inhibit voltage-gated sodium channels during prey capture. Using polymerase chain reaction techniques, we identified a gene sequence from the venom duct of Conus tulipa encoding a new mu-conotoxin-TIIIA (TIIIA). A 125I-TIIIA binding assay was established to isolate native TIIIA from the crude(More)
Mu-conotoxins are small peptide inhibitors of muscle and neuronal tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Here we report the isolation of mu-conotoxins SIIIA and SIIIB by (125)I-TIIIA-guided fractionation of milked Conus striatus venom. SIIIA and SIIIB potently displaced (125)I-TIIIA from native rat brain Na(v)1.2 (IC(50) values(More)
Development of peptide-based drugs has been severely limited by lack of oral bioavailability with less than a handful of peptides being truly orally bioavailable, mainly cyclic peptides with N-methyl amino acids and few hydrogen bond donors. Here we report that cyclic penta- and hexa-leucine peptides, with no N-methylation and five or six amide NH protons,(More)
Disrupting the binding interaction between proprotein convertase (PCSK9) and the epidermal growth factor-like domain A (EGF-A domain) in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) is a promising strategy to promote LDL-R recycling and thereby lower circulating cholesterol levels. In this study, truncated 26 amino acid EGF-A analogs were designed and(More)