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Dementia has been increasingly more recognized to be a common feature in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), especially in old age. Specific criteria for the clinical diagnosis of dementia associated with PD (PD-D), however, have been lacking. A Task Force, organized by the Movement Disorder Study, was charged with the development of clinical diagnostic(More)
Neuropathic pain treatment remains unsatisfactory despite a substantial increase in the number of trials. This EFNS Task Force aimed at evaluating the existing evidence about the pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain. Studies were identified using first the Cochrane Database then Medline. Trials were classified according to the aetiological(More)
Levodopa is the most effective symptomatic agent in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and the "gold standard" against which new agents must be compared. However, there remain two areas of controversy: (1) whether levodopa is toxic, and (2) whether levodopa directly causes motor complications. Levodopa is toxic to cultured dopamine neurons, and this(More)
Anxiety syndromes are common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with up to 30% suffering from panic disorder, and up to 11% from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Anxiety is associated with increased subjective motor symptoms, more severe gait problems, dyskinesias, freezing, and on/off fluctuations. Anxiety has a negative impact on health related(More)
Introduction. The European Multiple System Atrophy-Study Group (EMSA-SG) is an academic network comprising 23 centers across Europe and Israel that has constituted itself already in January 1999. This international forum of established experts under the guidance of the University Hospital of Innsbruck as coordinating center is supported by the 5th framework(More)
The development of disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease requires innovative trials with large numbers of subjects and long observation periods. The use of blood, cerebrospinal fluid or neuroimaging biomarkers is critical for the demonstration of disease-modifying therapy effects on the brain. Suitable biomarkers are those which reflect the(More)
The aim of the study was to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of early (uncomplicated) Parkinson's disease (PD), based on a review of the literature. Uncomplicated PD refers to patients suffering from the classical motor syndrome of PD only, without treatment-induced motor complications and without neuropsychiatric or autonomic(More)
We investigated the costs of Parkinson's Disease (PD) in 486 patients based on a survey conducted in six countries. Economic data were collected over a 6-month period and presented from the societal perspective. The total mean costs per patient ranged from EUR 2620 to EUR 9820. Direct costs totalled about 60% to 70% and indirect costs about 30% to 40% of(More)
The overall goal of value therapy is to provide the most efficient use of resources, taking into account both the cost and the value derived from a given technology or drug, and to assist in healthcare decision-making, because both cost and effectiveness are considered. After a short review of European Medicines Agency (EMEA) Committee for Medicinal(More)
Evidence-based medicine is the process of systematically finding, appraising, and applying contemporaneous research findings as the basis for clinical decisions. The individual clinician is too busy to perform this long and arduous task across the whole of their specialty, so they must rely on the highest quality reviews available in the literature. The(More)