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Dementia has been increasingly more recognized to be a common feature in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), especially in old age. Specific criteria for the clinical diagnosis of dementia associated with PD (PD-D), however, have been lacking. A Task Force, organized by the Movement Disorder Study, was charged with the development of clinical diagnostic(More)
Levodopa is the most effective symptomatic agent in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and the "gold standard" against which new agents must be compared. However, there remain two areas of controversy: (1) whether levodopa is toxic, and (2) whether levodopa directly causes motor complications. Levodopa is toxic to cultured dopamine neurons, and this(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in PARK8 (LRRK2) are associated with autosomal dominant parkinsonism and Parkinson disease (PD). Hyposmia is present in at least 80% of patients with PD and an accumulation of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) is seen in the olfactory pathways. In this study we have clinically examined olfaction and pathologically examined the rhinencephalon(More)
The development of disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease requires innovative trials with large numbers of subjects and long observation periods. The use of blood, cerebrospinal fluid or neuroimaging biomarkers is critical for the demonstration of disease-modifying therapy effects on the brain. Suitable biomarkers are those which reflect the(More)
Anxiety syndromes are common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with up to 30% suffering from panic disorder, and up to 11% from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Anxiety is associated with increased subjective motor symptoms, more severe gait problems, dyskinesias, freezing, and on/off fluctuations. Anxiety has a negative impact on health related(More)
We investigated the costs of Parkinson's Disease (PD) in 486 patients based on a survey conducted in six countries. Economic data were collected over a 6-month period and presented from the societal perspective. The total mean costs per patient ranged from EUR 2620 to EUR 9820. Direct costs totalled about 60% to 70% and indirect costs about 30% to 40% of(More)
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