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C-type natriuretic peptide is a 22-amino acid peptide that was initially identified in the central nervous system. The distribution of C-type natriuretic peptide, which has structural homology with atrial and brain natriuretic peptides, is wide and includes the endothelium, myocardium, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts. The biological effects of(More)
BACKGROUND In humans and macaques, a promoter polymorphism that decreases transcription of the serotonin transporter gene is associated with anxiety. Serotonin transporter gene disruption in rodents produces anxious animals with exaggerated limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) responses to stress. We wanted to determine whether serotonin transporter(More)
A polymorphism in the human serotonin transporter gene promoter (5-HTTLPR) is associated with anxiety and increased risk for developing depression in the face of adversity. Here, we report that among infant rhesus macaques, an orthologous polymorphism (rh5-HTTLPR) interacts with adversity in the form of peer rearing to influence adrenocorticotropic hormone(More)
CONTEXT Traumatic experiences in early childhood are associated with increased risk of developing stress-related disorders, which are linked to structural brain abnormalities. However, it is unclear whether these volumetric brain changes are present before disease onset or reflect the consequences of disease progression. OBJECTIVE To identify structural(More)
BACKGROUND Allelic variation of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been implicated in conduct disorder and antisocial, aggressive behavior in humans when associated with early adverse experiences. We tested the hypothesis that a repeat polymorphism in the rhesus macaque MAOA gene promoter region influences aggressive behavior in male subjects. (More)
BACKGROUND Serotonin neurotransmission and limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis hormones are thought to be involved in the reinforcement of alcohol intake and contribute to the risk for alcoholism. In humans and macaques, a promoter polymorphism that decreases transcription of the serotonin transporter gene is associated with anxiety and(More)
In a variety of species, development of attachment to a caregiver is crucial for infant survival and partly mediated by the endogenous opioids. Functional mu-opioid receptor gene polymorphisms are present in humans (OPRM1 A118G) and rhesus macaques (OPRM1 C77G). We hypothesized that rhesus infants carrying a gain-of-function OPRM1 77G allele would(More)
Human studies have suggested an association between a variable length polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene promoter region and vulnerability to anxiety and depression. Relative to the long (l) allele, the short (s) allele increases the risk of developing depression in individuals exposed to stressful life events. An orthologue of the human variant(More)
Variation in the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with anxiety and harm avoidance and is weakly associated with a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including Type II alcoholism, which has a high rate of comorbidity with antisocial personality disorder. Studies have also demonstrated interactions between(More)
BACKGROUND A history of alcohol dependence recruits increased voluntary alcohol intake and sensitivity to stress. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) has been implicated in this transition, but underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS A postdependent state was induced using intermittent alcohol exposure. Experiments were carried out(More)