Increasing evidence indicates that glucocorticoids (GCs), produced in response to physical/emotional stressors, can exacerbate brain damage resulting from cerebral ischemia and severe seizure activity. However, much of the supporting evidence has come from studies employing nonphysiological paradigms in which adrenalectomized rats were compared with those… (More)
BACKGROUND Group B streptococcal disease is one of the most common infections in the first week after birth. In 2002, national guidelines recommended universal late antenatal screening of pregnant women for colonization with group B streptococcus to identify candidates for intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. METHODS We evaluated the implementation of the… (More)
BACKGROUND Legionella species, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydia pneumoniae are recognized as important causes of pneumonia in high-income countries, but their significance in middle-income countries, such as Thailand, is unknown. METHODS Population-based surveillance identified inpatient 3489 cases of clinically-defined pneumonia in a rural Thai… (More)
In a hospital and health center-based study in Nicaragua, fluid intake during the 24 hours before being seen by a clinician was statistically associated with decreased risk for hospitalization of dengue fever patients. Similar results were obtained for children <15 years of age and older adolescents and adults in independent analyses.
BACKGROUND Pneumonia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Viruses contribute significantly to pneumonia burden, although data for low-income and tropical countries are scarce. The aim of this laboratory-enhanced, hospital-based surveillance was to characterise the epidemiology of respiratory virus infections among… (More)
Diabetes is associated with an increased risk for active tuberculosis (TB) disease. We conducted a case-control study and found a significant association between diabetes and TB disease among US-bound refugees. These findings underscore the value of collaborative management of both diseases.
Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) are relatively new public health interventions, and limited data exist on the potential impact of OCV use on traditional cholera prevention and control measures-safe water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH). To assess OCV acceptability and knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) regarding cholera and WaSH, we conducted… (More)