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CONTEXT Group B streptococcus is a leading infectious cause of morbidity in newborns and causes substantial disease in elderly individuals. Guidelines for prevention of perinatal disease through intrapartum chemoprophylaxis were revised in 2002. Candidate vaccines are under development. OBJECTIVE To describe disease trends among populations that might(More)
BACKGROUND Beginning on May 1, 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended presumptive treatment of refugees for intestinal parasites with a single dose of albendazole (600 mg), administered overseas before departure for the United States. METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving 26,956 African and Southeast(More)
During May 4, 2007-February 29, 2008, the United States resettled 6,159 refugees from Tanzania. Refugees received pre-departure antimalarial treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), partially supervised (three/six doses) artemether-lumefantrine (AL), or fully supervised AL. Thirty-nine malaria cases were detected. Disease incidence was 15.5/1,000 in(More)
In response to the largest recognized Ebola virus disease epidemic now occurring in West Africa, the governments of affected countries, CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO), and other international organizations have collaborated to implement strategies to control spread of the virus. One strategy recommended by WHO calls for countries with Ebola(More)
BACKGROUND Group B streptococcal disease is one of the most common infections in the first week after birth. In 2002, national guidelines recommended universal late antenatal screening of pregnant women for colonization with group B streptococcus to identify candidates for intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. METHODS We evaluated the implementation of the(More)
Increasing evidence indicates that glucocorticoids (GCs), produced in response to physical/emotional stressors, can exacerbate brain damage resulting from cerebral ischemia and severe seizure activity. However, much of the supporting evidence has come from studies employing nonphysiological paradigms in which adrenalectomized rats were compared with those(More)
BACKGROUND Legionella species, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydia pneumoniae are recognized as important causes of pneumonia in high-income countries, but their significance in middle-income countries, such as Thailand, is unknown. METHODS Population-based surveillance identified inpatient 3489 cases of clinically-defined pneumonia in a rural Thai(More)
BACKGROUND A long-term care facility (LTCF) reported an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) in September 2004. METHODS We conducted case finding through enhanced surveillance, medical record review (n = 131), and community surveys (n = 258). We cultured water samples from the LTCF and assayed their outdoor air-intake filters for Legionella DNA. We also(More)
In a hospital and health center-based study in Nicaragua, fluid intake during the 24 hours before being seen by a clinician was statistically associated with decreased risk for hospitalization of dengue fever patients. Similar results were obtained for children <15 years of age and older adolescents and adults in independent analyses.
Chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria is a serious problem in much of sub-Saharan Africa. However, it is desirable to continue to use chloroquine as first-line therapy for uncomplicated malaria where it remains clinically effective. To identify predictors of chloroquine treatment failure, a 14-day clinical study of chloroquine resistance in patients with(More)