Christina Marx

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Parafoveal preprocessing is an important factor for efficient reading and, in eye-movement studies, is typically investigated by means of parafoveal masking: Valid previews are compared to instances in which masks prevent preprocessing. A long-held assumption was that parafoveal preprocessing, as assessed by this technique, only reflects facilitation (i.e.,(More)
Bilingual inhibitory control advantages are well established. An open question is whether inhibitory superiority also extends to visual perceptual phenomena that involve inhibitory processes. This research used ambiguous figures to assess inhibitory bilingual superiority in 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old mono- and bilingual children (N=141). Findings show that(More)
Parafoveal preprocessing of upcoming words and the resultant preview benefit are key aspects of fluent reading. Evidence regarding the development of parafoveal preprocessing during reading acquisition, however, is scarce. The present developmental (cross-sectional) eye tracking study estimated the magnitude of parafoveal preprocessing of beginning readers(More)
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is characterized by a profound disruption of proapoptotic signaling networks leading to chemo- and radioresistance. A key mediator of DNA damage-induced apoptosis is the BH3-only protein PUMA. Given its central role in proapoptotic signaling, we analyzed a series of more than 600 precision-annotated primary RCC specimens for PUMA(More)
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