Christina M. Loiacono

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Swine influenza viruses (SIV) of the hemagglutinin subtype 1 (H1) isolated from the United States (U.S.) have not been well-characterized in the natural host. An increase in the rate of mutation and reassortment has occurred in SIV isolates from the U.S. since 1998, including viruses belonging to the H1 subtype. Two independent animal studies were done to(More)
Swine influenza viruses (SIV) naturally infect pigs and can be transmitted to humans. In the pig, genetic reassortment to create novel influenza subtypes by mixing avian, human, and swine influenza viruses is possible. An SIV vaccine inducing cross-protective immunity between different subtypes and strains circulating in pigs is highly desirable.(More)
A cell model of primary monocytes and other mononuclear cells isolated from equine blood was used to study the kinetics of West Nile virus (WNV) replication in a natural host. West Nile virus has emerged on the North American continent as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in a wide range of avian and mammalian species. While other flaviviruses(More)
In August 2007, pigs and people became clinically affected by an influenza-like illness during attendance at an Ohio county fair. Influenza A virus was identified from pigs and people, and the virus isolates were characterized as swine H1N1 similar to swine viruses currently circulating in the U.S. pig population. The swine isolate, A/SW/OH/511445/2007(More)
BACKGROUND It is assumed that moderate exercise may improve resistance to infection and reduce inflammation, but there are limited data to support this assumption in an infection model. METHODS BALB/cJ mice were assigned to the following groups: no exercise (NON-EX), 1 session of acute exercise (A-EX), or chronic exercise for approximately 3.5 months(More)
The development of experimental Lyme arthritis has been correlated with the expression of a number of chemokines and cytokines, however, none of these have been measured directly from the arthritic joint. We examined the temporal expression of IL-1beta, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, KC,(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes a latent infection in sensory ganglia neurons in humans and in the mouse model. The ability of the virus to latently infect neurons and reactivate is central to the ability of HSV-1 to remain in the human population and spread to new hosts. It is possible that neuronal transcriptional proteins control latency and(More)
Transmissible, spongiform encephalopathies including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie are fatal neurodegenerative disorders associated with the presence of an infectious abnormal isoform of normal mammalian proteins called prions. Identification of the prion protein associated with scrapie (PrP(Sc)) in the central nervous system is(More)
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of domestic and wild cervids in North America. To address possible prevention regimens for CWD, we have used a mouse model system and the Rocky Mountain Laboratory (RML) mouse-adapted scrapie prion strain to screen efficacy of potential vaccine candidates. Three peptides(More)
The North American West Nile virus (WNV) epizootic, which began in 1999, has caused significant morbidity and mortality in horses. Because experimental infection has failed to consistently produce encephalitis in inoculated horses, investigation of naturally occurring cases was used to optimize strategies for diagnosis of this disease. Although WNV RNA(More)