Christina M. Kennedy

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Attributes of a species' spatial distribution, such as the number of occurrences and the spatial distribution of those occurrences, can affect extinction risk. Extinction risk, however, is scale dependent, and it is unclear how scale dependency affects linkages between species' distributions and extinction risk. Here, we evaluate the relationships between(More)
Land cover and land use surrounding fragmented habitat can greatly impact species persistence by altering resource availability, edge effects, or the movement of individuals throughout a landscape. Despite the potential importance of the landscape matrix, ecologists still have limited understanding of the relative effects of different types of land cover(More)
We examined spatial distributions of fishes native to the lower basin of the Colorado River (25 species) at three scales to determine percent decline from historical distributions based on a regional biodiversity database. We cumulated records from 1843 to 1980 to develop a " historical distribution " for each species and used those occurrences recorded(More)
Technological advances and increasing availability of high-resolution satellite imagery offer the potential for more accurate land cover classifications and pattern analyses, which could greatly improve the detection and quantification of land cover change for conservation. Such remotely-sensed products, however, are often expensive and difficult to(More)
A growing and more affluent human population is expected to increase the demand for resources and to accelerate habitat modification, but by how much and where remains unknown. Here we project and aggregate global spatial patterns of expected urban and agricultural expansion, conventional and unconventional oil and gas, coal, solar, wind, biofuels and(More)
We are building a software development environment that uses constraints to ensure the consistency of the different artifacts associated with software. This approach to software development makes the environment responsible for detecting most inconsistencies between software design, specifications, documentation, source code, and test cases. The environment(More)
Impact mitigation is a primary mechanism on which countries rely to reduce environmental externalities and balance development with conservation. Mitigation policies are transitioning from traditional project-by-project planning to landscape-level planning. Although this larger-scale approach is expected to provide greater conservation benefits at the(More)
Companies make significant investments in environmental impacts assessments, biodiversity action plans, life-cycle assessments, and environmental management systems, but guidance on where and when these tools can be best used, and how they may scale-up to inform corporation-wide planning, is sorely lacking. A major barrier to informed environmental(More)
Habitat fragmentation is the process whereby previously contiguous habitat of a certain type (for example, forest) is subdivided into smaller and more isolated fragments. Fragmentation occurs naturally due to fi re, fl oods, and windstorms, but the focus of most ecological research is on fragmentation that results from anthropogenic change. Fragmentation(More)
We are building a software development environment that uses constraints to ensure the consistency of the different artifacts associated with software. This approach to software development makes the environment responsible for detecting most inconsistencies between software design, specifications, documentation, source code, and test cases. The environment(More)