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Myostatin (also known as growth and differentiation factor 8) is a secreted member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that is mainly expressed in skeletal muscle, which is also its primary target tissue. Deletion of the myostatin gene (Mstn) in mice leads to muscle hypertrophy, and animal studies support the concept that myostatin is a(More)
OBJECTIVE Based on previous data that have linked the small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO-1) to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we have investigated the expression of the highly homologous SUMO family members SUMO-2/3 in human RA and in the human tumour necrosis factor α transgenic (hTNFtg) mouse model of RA and studied their role in(More)
BACKGROUND The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous regulators, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs 1-4) are responsible for the physiological remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Among all TIMPs, TIMP3 appears to play a unique role since TIMP3 is a secreted protein and, unlike the other TIMP family members, is(More)
OBJECTIVE We analysed the role of the adaptor molecule four-and-a-half Lin11, Isl-1 & Mec-3 (LIM) domain protein 2 (FHL2) in the activation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in human rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα)-dependent animal models of the disease. METHODS Synovial tissues of patients with RA and osteoarthritis (OA) as(More)
INTRODUCTION Inflammatory destructive arthritis, like rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is characterized by invasion of synovial fibroblasts (SF) into the articular cartilage and erosion of the underlying bone, leading to progressive joint destruction. Because fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP) has been associated with cell migration and cell invasiveness,(More)
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