Christina J. Witsberger

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It is well known that the costs of care at health maintenance organizations (HMOs) at any point in time have been lower than in the fee-for-service sector, but how costs have changed in each of these sectors has been less well-documented. The only previous study, which examined the HMO experience during the 1960s and early 1970s, found that HMO and(More)
Employment of geriatric nurse practitioners (GNPs) is one strategy to improve nursing home care. The effects of GNPs on costs and profitability of nursing homes and on costs of patient medical service use outside the nursing home are examined. Employment of GNPs does not adversely affect nursing home costs or significantly affect profits. There is some(More)
Two alternative methods to Medicare Cost Reports that provide information about hospital costs more promptly but less accurately are investigated. Both employ utilization data from current-year bills. The first attaches costs to utilization data using cost-charge ratios from the previous year's cost report; the second uses charges from current year's bills.(More)
Hospital length of stay (LOS) declined steadily during the 1970s, then rapidly during the early years of the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS). In this article, the authors examine trends in hospital LOS for Medicare patients from 1979 through 1987 for all cases combined, for medical and surgical cases separately, and for different geographic(More)
Because of the high rates of employment of mothers, a large and increasing number of preschool children receive regular care from someone else. This article develops and tests hypotheses about the choice of child care arrangements for younger and older preschool children, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women. We argue that(More)
As of 1983, 10% to 40% of cities with a population of 200,000 to 500,000 lacked a board-certified physician in one or more medical subspecialties, and many additional cities of this size had only one certified representative in many of the subspecialties. Somewhat smaller cities (population, 125,000 to 200,000) had far less complete coverage. Even when one(More)
A two-part study of gastroenterologists (GEs) was conducted. One component was the analysis of 1987 Part B Medicare Annual Data to assess volume of services and patterns of reimbursement to gastroenterologists. This study demonstrated that two-thirds of services billed by GEs are medical visits, whereas two-thirds of GEs' income is derived from endoscopies.(More)
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