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Although the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) is essential for conditioned auditory fear memory, an emerging theme is that plasticity in multiple brain regions contributes to fear memory formation. The LA receives direct projections from the auditory thalamus, specifically the medial division of the medial geniculate nucleus (MGm) and adjacent posterior(More)
Remodeling of cortical connectivity is thought to allow initially hippocampus-dependent memories to be expressed independently of the hippocampus at remote time points. Consistent with this, consolidation of a contextual fear memory is associated with dendritic spine growth in neurons of the anterior cingulate cortex (aCC). To directly test whether such(More)
Memory formation is thought to be mediated by dendritic-spine growth and restructuring. Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) restricts spine growth in vitro, suggesting that this transcription factor negatively regulates the spine remodeling necessary for memory formation. Here we show that memory formation in adult mice was associated with changes in(More)
In the brain, transcription factors are critical for linking external stimuli to protein production, enabling neurons and neuronal networks to adapt to the ever-changing landscape. Gene transcription and protein synthesis are also vital for the formation of long-term memory. Members of the myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) family of transcription factors(More)
The FoxO family of transcription factors is known to slow aging downstream from the insulin/IGF (insulin-like growth factor) signaling pathway. The most recently discovered FoxO isoform in mammals, FoxO6, is highly enriched in the adult hippocampus. However, the importance of FoxO factors in cognition is largely unknown. Here we generated mice lacking FoxO6(More)
PURPOSE To measure vitreous levels of the soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1) in eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) complicated or uncomplicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) to investigate whether levels of this molecule related to history of previous retinal surgery or to the duration and severity of PVR. METHODS(More)
Inherited defects in purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) cause severe T cell immunodeficiency and progressive neurological dysfunction, yet little is known about the effects of PNP deficiency on the brain. PNP-KO mice display metabolic and immune anomalies similar to those observed in patients. Our objectives were to characterize brain abnormalities in(More)
Collections of cells called engrams are thought to represent memories. Although there has been progress in identifying and manipulating single engrams, little is known about how multiple engrams interact to influence memory. In lateral amygdala (LA), neurons with increased excitability during training outcompete their neighbors for allocation to an engram.(More)
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