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In this paper we analyze the CS Principles project, a proposed Advanced Placement course, by focusing on the second pilot that took place in 2011-2012. In a previous publication the first pilot of the course was explained, but not in a context related to relevant educational research and philosophy. In this paper we analyze the content and the pedagogical(More)
Yellow fever (YF) is a viral disease, endemic to tropical regions of Africa and the Americas, which principally affects humans and nonhuman primates and is transmitted via the bite of infected mosquitoes. Yellow fever virus (YFV) can cause devastating epidemics of potentially fatal, hemorrhagic disease. Despite mass vaccination campaigns to prevent and(More)
Mosquito-borne yellow fever virus (YFV) causes highly lethal, viscerotropic disease in humans and non-human primates. Despite the availability of efficacious live-attenuated vaccine strains, 17D-204 and 17DD, derived by serial passage of pathogenic YFV strain Asibi, YFV continues to pose a significant threat to human health. Neither the disease caused by(More)
Currently, there is little evidence for a notable role of the vertebrate microRNA (miRNA) system in the pathogenesis of RNA viruses. This is primarily attributed to the ease with which these viruses mutate to disrupt recognition and growth suppression by host miRNAs. Here we report that the haematopoietic-cell-specific miRNA miR-142-3p potently restricts(More)
Eastern and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (EEEV and VEEV, respectively) cause severe morbidity and mortality in equines and humans. Like other mosquito-borne viruses, VEEV infects dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages in lymphoid tissues, fueling a serum viremia and facilitating neuroinvasion. In contrast, EEEV replicates poorly in lymphoid(More)
The Alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae contains mosquito-vectored viruses that primarily cause either arthritogenic disease or acute encephalitis. North American eastern equine encephalitis virus (NA-EEEV) is uniquely neurovirulent among encephalitic alphaviruses, causing mortality in a majority of symptomatic cases and neurological sequelae in many(More)
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is highly virulent in adult laboratory mice, while Sindbis virus (SINV) is avirulent regardless of dose or inoculation route, dependent upon functioning alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) responses. We have examined each virus' resistance to and/or antagonism of IFN-alpha/beta responses in neurons, a cell type(More)
Severity of alphavirus infection in humans tends to be strongly age-dependent and several studies using laboratory-adapted Sindbis virus (SB) AR339 strains have indicated that SB-induced disease in mice is similarly contingent upon host developmental status. In the current studies, the consensus wild-type SB, TR339, and in vivo imaging technology have been(More)
Engineered alphavirus vectors expressing reporters of infection have been used for a number of years due to their relatively low costs for analysis of virus replication and the capacity to utilize imaging systems for longitudinal measurements of growth within single animals. In general, these vectors have been derived from Old World alphaviruses using a(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Advance warning of patients who are difficult to intubate may prevent an airway catastrophe but relies on effective communication between specialties. Anaesthetists aim to inform general practitioners whenever a difficult airway is encountered and expect general practitioners to include this information in subsequent referrals. We(More)