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1. Spatial summation within cat retinal receptive fields was studied by recording from optic-tract fibres the responses of ganglion cells to grating patterns whose luminance perpendicular to the bars varied sinusoidally about the mean level. 2. Summation over the receptive fields of some cells (X-cells) was found to be approximately linear, while for other(More)
The contrast sensitivity to gratings drifting at 2.0 Hz has been measured for X and Y type retinal ganglion cells, and these data have been used to characterize the sizes and peak sensitivities of centers and surrounds. The assumption of Gaussian sensitivity distributions is adequate for both types of cells, but allows a better description of X than of Y(More)
Visual stimulation outside the classical receptive field can have pronounced effects on cat retinal ganglion cells. We characterized the effects of such stimulation by varying the contrast, spatial frequency, temporal frequency, and spatial extent of remote drifting sinusoidal gratings. We found that the mean firing rate of some X-cells and most Y-cells(More)
Spatiotemporal frequency responses were measured at different levels of light adaptation for cat X and Y retinal ganglion cells. Stationary sinusoidal luminance gratings whose contrast was modulated sinusoidally in time or drifting gratings were used as stimuli. Under photopic illumination, when the spatial frequency was held constant at or above its(More)
It has been suggested for a number of years that ganglion cells inform the rest of the brain about contrast in the retinal image. The purpose of the work undertaken here was to demonstrate this fact explicitly. Extracellular recordings were made from X- and Y-cell axons of the optic tracts of anesthetized cats. Responses of these cells to gratings that were(More)
1. The discharges of ganglion cells in the cat's retina were recorded under conditions intended to isolate the cone system.2. Stiles' two-colour threshold technique permitted the photopic system to be studied when at its highest sensitivity. The absolute sensitivity of a ganglion cell, expressed in equivalent photons of lambda(max) at the cornea per impulse(More)
The effects of picrotoxin and bicuculline upon the discharge pattern of center-surround organized cat retinal ganglion cells of X and Y type were studied. All experiments were carried out under scotopic or possibly low mesopic conditions; mostly but not exclusively on-center cells were studied. Stimuli were chosen so that responses were either; (a) "purely"(More)
1. Grating patterns were used to obtain a quantitative description of cells in the visual cortex of the cat whose response amplitude depended critically upon the orientation of the moving grating.2. In all such cells the impulse frequency was found to decrease linearly with angle on either side of an optimum angle (the preferred angle) until the response(More)
1. Y-type ganglion cells in the cat's retina were stimulated with bars of light and grating patterns at photopic luminances. Stimuli were stationary, and luminance at each point was varied sinusoidally in time at 2 Hz. Impulse rates were recorded from single cells. 2. When the stimulus was a narrow bar of light, the impulse rate approached a sinusoidal(More)