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Beta-galactosidase from the probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus R22 was purified to apparent homogeneity by ammonium sulphate fractionation, hydrophobic interaction, and affinity chromatography. The enzyme is a heterodimer consisting of two subunits of 35 and 72 kDa, as determined by gel electrophoresis. The optimum temperature of beta-galactosidase(More)
Cellulose is the major polysaccharide of plants where it plays a predominantly structural role. A variety of highly specialized microorganisms have evolved to produce enzymes that either synergistically or in complexes can carry out the complete hydrolysis of cellulose. The structure of the major cellobiohydrolase, CBHI, of the potent cellulolytic fungus(More)
Detailed information has been obtained, by means of protein X-ray crystallography, on how a cellulose chain is bound in the cellulose-binding tunnel of cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI), the major cellulase in the hydrolysis of native, crystalline cellulose by the fungus Trichoderma reesei. Three high-resolution crystal structures of different catalytically(More)
The roles of the residues in the catalytic trio Glu212-Asp214-Glu217 in cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI) from Trichoderma reesei have been investigated by changing these residues to their isosteric amide counterparts. Three mutants, E212Q, D214N and E217Q, were constructed and expressed in T. reesei. All three point mutations significantly impair the catalytic(More)
Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) participates in the degradation of cellulose and lignin. The protein is an extracellular flavocytochrome with a b-type cytochrome domain (CYT(cdh)) connected to a flavodehydrogenase domain (DH(cdh)). DH(cdh) catalyses a two-electron oxidation at the anomeric C1 position of cellobiose to yield cellobiono-1,5-lactone, and the(More)
The fungal extracellular flavocytochrome cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) participates in lignocellulose degradation. The enzyme has a cytochrome domain connected to a flavin-binding domain by a peptide linker. The cytochrome domain contains a 6-coordinate low spin b-type heme with unusual iron ligands and coordination geometry. Wild type CDH is only the(More)
The crystal structures of Family 7 glycohydrolases suggest that a histidine residue near the acid/base catalyst could account for the higher pH optimum of the Humicola insolens endoglucanase Cel7B, than the corresponding Trichoderma reesei enzymes. Modelling studies indicated that introduction of histidine at the homologous position in T. reesei Cel7A(More)
Cellulose is the most abundant polymer in the biosphere. Although generally resistant to degradation, it may be hydrolysed by cellulolytic organisms that have evolved a variety of structurally distinct enzymes, cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases, for this purpose. Endoglucanase I (EG I) is the major endoglucanase produced by the cellulolytic fungus(More)
The gene for a membrane-bound, halophilic, and thermostable alpha-amylase, AmyB, from Halothermothrix orenii was cloned and sequenced. The crystal structure shows that, in addition to the typical domain organization of family 13 glycoside hydrolases, AmyB carries an additional N-terminal domain (N domain) that forms a large groove--the N-C groove--some 30 A(More)