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Lactose is a major disaccharide by-product from the dairy industries, and production of whey alone amounts to about 200 million tons globally each year. Thus, it is of particular interest to identify improved enzymatic processes for lactose utilization. Microbial β-glucosidases (BGL) with significant β-galactosidase (BGAL) activity can be used to convert(More)
Pyranose dehydrogenases (PDHs) are extracellular flavin-dependent oxidoreductases secreted by litter-decomposing fungi with a role in natural recycling of plant matter. All major monosaccharides in lignocellulose are oxidized by PDH at comparable yields and efficiencies. Oxidation takes place as single-oxidation or sequential double-oxidation reactions of(More)
A new paradigm for cellulose depolymerization by fungi focuses on an oxidative mechanism involving cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDH) and copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO); however, mechanistic studies have been hampered by the lack of structural information regarding CDH. CDH contains a haem-binding cytochrome (CYT) connected via a(More)
Lactose is produced in large amounts as a by-product from the dairy industry. This inexpensive disaccharide can be converted to more useful value-added products such as galacto-oligosaccharides (GOSs) by transgalactosylation reactions with retaining β-galactosidases (BGALs) being normally used for this purpose. Hydrolysis is always competing with the(More)
The flavin-dependent homotetrameric enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (P2O) is found mostly, but not exclusively, in lignocellulose-degrading fungi where it catalyzes the oxidation of β-d-glucose to the corresponding 2-keto sugar concomitantly with hydrogen peroxide formation during lignin solubilization. Here, we present crystal structures of P2O from the(More)
A gene from the heterotrophic, halothermophilic marine bacterium Halothermothrix orenii has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. This gene encodes the only glycoside hydrolase of family 43 (GH43) produced by H. orenii. The crystal structure of the H. orenii glycosidase was determined by molecular replacement and refined at 1.10 Å resolution.(More)
UNLABELLED Methanothermobacter marburgensis is a strictly anaerobic, thermophilic methanogenic archaeon that uses methanogenesis to convert H2 and CO2 to energy. M. marburgensis is one of the best-studied methanogens, and all genes required for methanogenic metabolism have been identified. Nonetheless, the present study describes a gene (Gene ID 9704440)(More)
Each year, about six million tons of lactose are generated from liquid whey as industrial byproduct, and optimally this large carbohydrate waste should be used for the production of value-added products. Trametes multicolor pyranose 2-oxidase (TmP2O) catalyzes the oxidation of various monosaccharides to the corresponding 2-keto sugars. Thus, a potential use(More)
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