Christina Chalmers

Learn More
Following the adoption of new international sampling conventions for inhalable, thoracic and respirable aerosol fractions, a working group of Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) drafted a standard for the performance of workplace aerosol sampling instruments. The present study was set up to verify the experimental, statistical and mathematical procedures(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe changes in the injecting risk behaviour of injecting drug users (IDU) in London between 1990 and 1993. DESIGN Injecting risk behaviour was measured over 4 years (1990-1993) in a serial point HIV prevalence study of 2062 IDU recruited in both drug treatment and non-treatment community-based settings within greater London. The study(More)
The performances of two designs of personal inhalable fraction sampler, which have been shown to differ in laboratory wind tunnel studies, were assessed in 23 real industrial environments, relative to the collection of dust by a simulated worker. This took the form of a mobile, articulated, breathing robot which was fitted with an oral filter, and could be(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide time-trend estimates of HIV-1 prevalence among injecting drug users (IDU) in London. DESIGN HIV-1 prevalence and HIV testing behaviour were measured in four serial point prevalence surveys of IDU recruited at multiple sites in community-based non-treatment and drug treatment settings between 1990 and 1993. METHODS Community subjects(More)
AIM To develop a short injecting risk questionnaire (IRQ) to measure sharing of injecting equipment. DESIGN Matrix design with quota assignment, designed to compare the questionnaire when used by interview and self-completion, in agency and community settings, by agency staff and fieldworkers, with different injectors (age < 26 vs. 26+; male vs. female,(More)
Concerns about the risks of HIV infection among drug injectors have eclipsed concerns about the prevalence and transmission of hepatitis, and in particular hepatitis B virus infection. Findings are reported from surveys undertaken with two separate community-recruited samples of drug injectors in London collected in 1992 (n = 505) and in 1993 (n = 507).(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of malathion on the immune system of wild birds, using Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) as a model. Quail were exposed to malathion in drinking water at environmentally realistic concentrations (0 ppm, 1 ppm, and 10 ppm). In the fifth week, several arms of the immune response were tested using(More)