Christina Calmels

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The DNA polymerase of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) is a target widely used to inhibit HIV-1 replication. In contrast, very few inhibitors of the RNase H activity associated with RT have been described, despite the crucial role played by this activity in viral proliferation. DNA ligands with a high affinity for the(More)
Stable HIV-1 replication requires the DNA repair of the integration locus catalyzed by cellular factors. The human RAD51 (hRAD51) protein plays a major role in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair and was previously shown to interact with HIV-1 integrase (IN) and inhibit its activity. Here we determined the molecular mechanism of inhibition of IN. Our(More)
Autoantibodies with enzymic activities (abzymes) are a distinctive feature of autoimmune diseases. It was interesting whether Abs from patients with viral diseases can hydrolyze viral proteins. Electrophoretically and immunologically homogeneous IgGs were isolated from sera of AIDS patients by chromatography on several affinity sorbents. We present evidence(More)
HIV-1 integrase (IN) catalyzes integration of a DNA copy of the viral genome into the host genome. In contrast to canonical proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin and proteinase K), IgGs and IgMs isolated from HIV-infected patients by affinity chromatography on immobilized IN specifically hydrolyzed only IN but not many other tested intact globular proteins. The(More)
In contrast to canonical proteases, total immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies (Abs) from HIV-infected patients hydrolyze effectively only HIV integrase (IN), reverse transcriptase (RT), human casein, and serum albumin. Anti-IN IgG and IgM isolated by chromatography on IN-Sepharose hydrolyze specifically only IN but not many other(More)
2-Hydroxyisoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-dione was recently discovered as a scaffold for the inhibition of HIV-1 integrase and the ribonuclease H function of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. First, we investigate its interaction with Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) using different spectroscopic techniques and report that 2-hydroxyisoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-dione forms a 1:1 complex(More)
Integration of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proviral DNA in the nuclear genome is catalyzed by the retroviral integrase (IN). In addition to IN, viral and cellular proteins associated in the high-molecular-weight preintegration complex have been suggested to be involved in this process. In an attempt to define host factors interacting with(More)
Establishment of stable HIV-1 infection requires the efficient integration of the retroviral genome into the host DNA. The molecular mechanism underlying the control of this process by the chromatin structure has not yet been elucidated. We show here that stably associated nucleosomes strongly inhibit in vitro two viral-end integration by decreasing the(More)
HIV-1 integrase (IN) catalyzes the integration of the proviral DNA into the cellular genome. The catalytic triad D64, D116 and E152 of HIV-1 IN is involved in the reaction mechanism and the DNA binding. Since the integration and substrate binding processes are not yet exactly known, we studied the role of amino acids localized in the catalytic site. We(More)
The integration of proviral DNA into the genome of the host cell is an essential step in the replication of retroviruses. This reaction is catalyzed by a viral-encoded enzyme, the integrase (IN). We have previously shown that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) IN causes a lethal effect when expressed in yeast cells. This system, called yeast lethal(More)