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Previous studies have assigned 88 human rhinovirus (HRV) serotypes to major and minor receptor groups. Extension of these studies to include the remaining 14 unassigned serotypes indicated that 13 serotypes belong to the major group since their infection of HeLa cells is completely blocked by a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the major group receptor.(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for conserved viral antigens can respond to different strains of virus, in contrast to antibodies, which are generally strain-specific. The generation of such CTLs in vivo usually requires endogenous expression of the antigen, as occurs in the case of virus infection. To generate a viral antigen for presentation to(More)
Tuberculosis is the most widespread and lethal infectious disease affecting humans. Immunization of mice with plasmid DNA constructs encoding one of the secreted components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, antigen 85 (Ag85), induced substantial humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and conferred significant protection against challenge with live M.(More)
9-([2-Hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl)guanine (2'-nor-2'-deoxyguanosine; 2'NDG) selectively inhibits the replication of herpes group viruses. In cell culture studies 2'NDG was at least 10-fold more potent than acyclovir (ACV) in inhibition of human cytomegalovirus replication and Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphocyte transformation and was about as(More)
DNA vaccination is an effective means of eliciting both humoral and cellular immunity, including cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Using an influenza virus model, we previously demonstrated that injection of DNA encoding influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) induced major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted CTL and cross-strain protection from lethal(More)
Dose-response relationships were investigated between dose of influenza virus haemagglutinin (HA) or nucleoprotein (NP) DNA vaccines, and immunogenicity and protective efficacy based on humoral and cellular immunity. In mice, intramuscular (i.m.) injection of HA or NP DNA, at doses of 100 ng to 1 microgram, was found to generate haemagglutination inhibiting(More)
Expression of reporter genes in muscle cells has been achieved by intramuscular (i.m.) injection of plasmid DNA expression vectors. We previously demonstrated that this technique is an effective means of immunization to elicit both antibodies capable of conferring homologous protection and cell-mediated immunity leading to cross-strain protection against(More)
A 90-kDa surface glycoprotein was previously isolated and shown to be required for infection by the "major" group of human rhinovirus (HRV) serotypes. In the present work, the amino acid sequence of the receptor protein was obtained from CNBr and tryptic peptides. Using degenerate oligonucleotides predicted from the peptide sequences, we identified four(More)
We have examined in detail the characteristics of the humoral immune response and protective efficacy induced by an influenza hemagglutinin (HA) DNA vaccine. In mice injected intramuscularly with HA DNA, the magnitude of the immune responses generated, as measured by ELISA and hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies, was directly related to the amount(More)
The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DNA vaccines have been amply demonstrated in numerous animal models of infectious disease. However, the feasibility of DNA vaccines for human use is not yet known. In order to investigate potential means of increasing the potency of DNA vaccines, conventional adjuvants such as aluminum salts were tested.(More)