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Allergic asthma is an inflammatory lung disease initiated and directed by T helper cells type 2 (Th2). The mechanism involved in generation of Th2 responses to inert inhaled antigens, however, is unknown. Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or other microbial products can influence the development and severity of(More)
BACKGROUND Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), a reactive chemical used for commercial polyurethane production, is a well-recognized cause of occupational asthma. The major focus of disease prevention efforts to date has been respiratory tract exposure; however, skin exposure may also be an important route for inducing immune sensitization, which may(More)
Atopic individuals are predisposed to mounting vigorous Th2-type immune responses to environmental allergens. To determine the factors responsible, animal models that closely mimic natural modes of allergen exposure should prove most informative. Therefore, we investigated the role of IL-4, a known Th2-promoting cytokine, in generation of Th2 responses(More)
OBJECTIVE Isocyanates (di- and poly-), important chemicals used worldwide to produce polyurethane products, are a leading cause of occupational asthma. Respiratory exposures have been reduced through improved hygiene controls and the use of less-volatile isocyanates. Yet isocyanate asthma continues to occur, not uncommonly in settings with minimal(More)
Allergic asthma is an inflammatory lung disease driven by Th2. We have shown that both Th1 and Th2 sensitization to inhaled OVA depend on the presence and concentration of LPS, where high concentrations (LPS(hi)) induce Th1 and low concentrations (LPS(lo)), Th2. Stromal cells (SCs), such as airway SCs, exacerbate established airway disease; however, little(More)
BACKGROUND Histamine drives pruritus in allergic skin diseases which clinically constitutes a most disruptive symptom. Skin pathology in allergic skin diseases is crucially influenced by different T-helper subsets. However, the contribution of different histamine-receptors to T-helper cell dependent skin pathology has not been definitively answered. Models(More)
Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable biometric components and characteristics, which include tree geometry and stand architecture. These structural components are important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of(More)
The ability of substance P (SP) to regulate peak benzyl-penicilloyl (BPO)-specific IgE antibody-forming cell (AFC) responses in vivo and the ability of SP and other neuropeptides to regulate BPO-specific memory IgE AFC responses induced in vitro was determined. SP injected subcutaneously into BPO-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (BPO-KLH)-sensitized mice at the(More)
Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that substance P (SP), injected into benzylpenicilloyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (BPO-KLH) sensitized mice at the peak of the benzylpenicilloyl (BPO)-specific IgE response, suppressed these responses in isotype-specific fashion within 48 h. These studies also showed that SP, but not neurotensin (NT), serotonin(More)