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Determining the mechanisms that mediate investment decisions between current and future reproductive attempts is still a key goal of life-history studies. Since baseline levels of stress hormones (glucocorticoids - GCs) act as predictive and labile regulators of daily energetic balance in vertebrates they remain excellent candidates for mediating investment(More)
We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that parent-offspring conflict over the degree of maternal investment has been one of the main selective factors in the evolution of vertebrate reproductive mode. This hypothesis is supported by data showing that the assumptions of parent-offspring conflict theory are met for relevant taxa; the high number of(More)
Predator-prey interactions, including between large mammalian wildlife species, can be represented as a "space race", where prey try to minimize and predators maximize spatial overlap. Human activity can also influence the distribution of wildlife species. In particular, high-human disturbance can displace large carnivore predators, a trait-mediated direct(More)
Individuals breeding in seasonal environments are under strong selection to time reproduction to match offspring demand and the quality of the post-natal environment. Timing requires both the ability to accurately interpret the appropriate environmental cues, and the flexibility to respond to inter-annual variation in these cues. Determining which cues are(More)
BACKGROUND Pyrosequencing technology has the potential to rapidly sequence HIV-1 viral quasispecies without requiring the traditional approach of cloning. In this study, we investigated the utility of ultra-deep pyrosequencing to characterize genetic diversity of the HIV-1 gag quasispecies and assessed the possible contribution of pyrosequencing technology(More)
Unless a safe refuge is found where predation threats are negligible, resting poses risks for many animals, necessitating risk management strategies. The adult cowtail stingray (Pastinachus sephen) of Shark Bay, Western Australia, is a solitarily foraging animal that facultatively groups when resting on shallow, inshore sand flats. We hypothesized that(More)
Animals store lipids, which are 13C-depleted, in their tissues that often must be extracted to correctly interpret δ13C data. However, chemical lipid extraction (CLE) can alter δ15N values and lipid normalization (LN) models are not consistent across fauna. We determined whether lipids should be extracted by assessing effects of CLE and validating LN models(More)
Spatial and temporal variation can confound interpretations of relationships within and between species in terms of diet composition, niche size, and trophic position (TP). The cause of dietary variation within species is commonly an ontogenetic niche shift, which is a key dynamic influencing community structure. We quantified spatial and temporal(More)
In urban parks, dogs, wildlife and humans can be sympatric, introducing the potential for inter- and intra-specific transmission of pathogens among hosts. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of zoonotic and non-zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in dogs in Calgary city parks, and assess if dog-walking behaviour, park management, history of(More)