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Genetic discoveries on Schizophrenia remain challenging. Traditional approaches have provided clues, but no genes. Novel theories that must account for extensive heterogeneity, including high discordance of monozygotic (MZD) twins, are needed. To this end, the extensive repeats of the human genome may provide the predisposition for DNA replication errors(More)
Genetic individuality is the foundation of personalized medicine, yet its determinants are currently poorly understood. One issue is the difference between monozygotic twins that are assumed identical and have been extensively used in genetic studies for decades. Here, we report genome-wide alterations in two nuclear families each with a pair of monozygotic(More)
The mechanism of action of olanzapine in treating schizophrenia is not clear. This research reports the effects of a therapeutic equivalent treatment of olanzapine on DNA methylation in a rat model in vivo. Genome-wide DNA methylation was assessed using a MeDIP-chip analysis. All methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP), sample labelling, hybridization(More)
Despite their singular origin, monozygotic twin pairs often display discordance for complex disorders including schizophrenia. It is a common (1%) and often familial disease with a discordance rate of ~50% in monozygotic twins. This high discordance is often explained by the role of yet unknown environmental, random, and epigenetic factors. The involvement(More)
Studies involving the analysis of structural variation including Copy Number Variation (CNV) have recently exploded in the literature. Furthermore, CNVs have been associated with a number of complex diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders. Common methods for CNV detection use SNP, CNV, or CGH arrays, where the signal intensities of consecutive probes are(More)
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability (80%), extensive genetic heterogeneity, environmental contributions and only 50% concordance in discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins. Discordant MZ twins provide an exceptional opportunity to assess patient specific genome-wide genetic and epigenetic changes that may account for the disease(More)
The complex aetiology of most mental disorders involves gene-environment interactions that may operate using epigenetic mechanisms particularly DNA methylation. It may explain many of the features seen in mental disorders including transmission, expression and antipsychotic treatment responses. This report deals with the assessment of DNA methylation in(More)
BACKGROUND The dopamine (DA) hypothesis of schizophrenia proposes the mental illness is caused by excessive transmission of dopamine in selected brain regions. Multiple lines of evidence, including blockage of dopamine receptors by antipsychotic drugs that are used to treat schizophrenia, support the hypothesis. However, the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2)(More)
The molecular basis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is poorly understood; however, epigenetic and gene expression changes have been implicated. We have developed a mouse model of FASD characterized by learning and memory impairment and persistent gene expression changes. Epigenetic marks may maintain expression changes over a mouse's lifetime, an(More)