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Individuals make choices and prioritize goals using complex processes that assign value to rewards and associated stimuli. During Pavlovian learning, previously neutral stimuli that predict rewards can acquire motivational properties, becoming attractive and desirable incentive stimuli. However, whether a cue acts solely as a predictor of reward, or also(More)
Neurotransmission operates on a millisecond timescale but is changed by normal experience or neuropathology over days to months. Despite the importance of long-term neurotransmitter dynamics, no technique exists to track these changes in a subject from day to day over extended periods of time. Here we describe and characterize a microsensor that can detect(More)
Several emerging theories of addiction have described how abused substances exploit vulnerabilities in decision-making processes. These vulnerabilities have been proposed to result from pharmacologically corrupted neural mechanisms of normal brain valuation systems. High alcohol intake in rats during adolescence has been shown to increase risk preference,(More)
Individuals make choices and prioritize goals using complex processes that assign value to rewards and associated stimuli. During Pavlovian learning, previously neutral stimuli that predict rewards can acquire motivational properties, whereby they themselves become attractive and desirable incentive stimuli. But individuals differ in whether a cue acts(More)
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