Christie Hay

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Cryptococcus neoformans is a prevalent human fungal pathogen that must survive within various tissues in order to establish a human infection. We have identified the C. neoformans Rim101 transcription factor, a highly conserved pH-response regulator in many fungal species. The rim101 multiply sign in circle mutant strain displays growth defects similar to(More)
Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental fungus and an opportunistic human pathogen. Previous studies have demonstrated major alterations in its transcriptional profile as this microorganism enters the hostile environment of the human host. To assess the role of chromatin remodeling in host-induced transcriptional responses, we identified the C.(More)
Immune escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses has been shown to occur not only by changes within the targeted epitope but also by changes in the flanking sequences which interfere with the processing of the immunogenic peptide. However, the frequency of such an escape mechanism has not been determined. To investigate whether naturally occurring(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific immune responses over the course of rapidly progressive infection are not well defined. Detailed longitudinal analyses of neutralizing antibodies, lymphocyte proliferation, in vivo-activated and memory cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses, and viral sequence variation were performed on a patient who(More)
We longitudinally measured T-cell receptor transcript frequencies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in an individual with rapidly progressive disease and high levels of viremia. CTL clones elicited during acute HIV-1 infection were present at the time of death, despite absent functional CTL responses,(More)
Neutrophils are the first cells to infiltrate to the site of Leishmania promastigote infection, and these cells help to reduce parasite burden shortly after infection is initiated. Several clinical reports indicate that neutrophil recruitment is sustained over the course of leishmaniasis, and amastigote-laden neutrophils have been isolated from chronically(More)
Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania amazonensis are both causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. However, patient prognosis and the host immune response differ considerably depending on the infecting parasite species. The mechanisms underlying these differences appear to be multifactorial, with both host and parasite components(More)
Professional phagocytes generate a myriad of antimicrobial molecules to kill invading microorganisms, of which nitrogen oxides are integral in controlling the obligate intracellular pathogen Leishmania. Although reactive nitrogen species produced by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) can promote the clearance of intracellular parasites, some(More)
Studies of HIV nonprogressors and rapid progressors reveal three components of the host-virus interaction that determine a person's ability to control virus replication: mutations in the virus itself, innate genetic host factors, and host immune responses to HIV. It remains unclear why some people have effective immune responses to HIV and others do not.(More)
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