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Polarized secretion requires proper targeting of secretory vesicles to specific sites on the plasma membrane. Here we report that the exocyst complex plays a key role in vesicle targeting. Sec15p, an exocyst component, can associate with secretory vesicles and interact specifically with the rab GTPase, Sec4p, in its GTP-bound form. A chain of(More)
The small GTPase Sec4p is required for vesicular transport at the post-Golgi stage of yeast secretion. Here we present evidence that mutations in SEC2, itself an essential gene that acts at the same stage of the secretory pathway, cause Sec4p to mislocalize as a result of a random rather than a polarized accumulation of vesicles. Sec2p and Sec4p interact(More)
SEC2 is an essential gene required for polarized growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It encodes a protein of 759 amino acids that functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPase Sec4p, a regulator of Golgi to plasma membrane transport. Activation of Sec4p by Sec2p is needed for polarized transport of vesicles to exocytic(More)
After exocytosis, synaptic vesicles rapidly endocytose and recycle but little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. Rab5 is a ubiquitous low molecular weight GTP-binding protein required for endosomal fusion in fibroblasts. We have now raised polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to rat Rab5 and show that in rat brain, Rab5 is a major synaptic(More)
Synaptophysins are abundant synaptic vesicle proteins present in two forms: synaptophysin, also referred to as synaptophysin I (abbreviated syp I), and synaptoporin, also referred to as synaptophysin II (abbreviated syp II). In the present study, the properties and localizations of syp I and syp II were investigated to shed light on their relative(More)
Synaptotagmin is known to be a major membrane protein of synaptic vesicles (SVs) in neurons. We have now used an immunoisolation procedure to demonstrate that synaptotagmin is also present in the membranes of peptide containing large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) of rat hypothalamus and bovine posterior pituitary. Synaptotagmin bead-immunoisolated organelles(More)
Sec2p is required for the polarized transport of secretory vesicles in S. cerevisiae. The Sec2p NH(2) terminus encodes an exchange factor for the Rab protein Sec4p. Sec2p associates with vesicles and in Sec2p COOH-terminal mutants Sec4p and vesicles no longer accumulate at bud tips. Thus, the Sec2p COOH terminus functions in targeting vesicles, however, the(More)
Syntaxin 1 and synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kD (SNAP-25) are neuronal plasmalemma proteins that appear to be essential for exocytosis of synaptic vesicles (SVs). Both proteins form a complex with synaptobrevin, an intrinsic membrane protein of SVs. This binding is thought to be responsible for vesicle docking and apparently precedes membrane fusion.(More)
As research becomes an ever more globalized activity, there is growing interest in national and international comparisons of standards and quality in different countries and regions. A sign for this trend is the increasing interest in rankings of universities according to their research performance, both inside but also outside the scientific environment.(More)
Synaptic release of neurotransmitters is a fast process that is mediated by Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Several abundant membrane proteins of synaptic vesicles have been characterized at the molecular level but their function in synaptic vesicle traffic is poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that some of these proteins are(More)