Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard

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In order to identify X-chromosomal genes required inDrosophila for early patterning and morphogenesis, we examined embryos hemizygous for EMS-induced lethal mutations to determine which of those mutations cause gross morphological defects. Embryos from 2711 lethal lines, corresponding to 3255 lethal point mutations were studied. Only 21% caused death during(More)
In systematic searches for embryonic lethal mutants of Drosophila melanogaster we have identified 15 loci which when mutated alter the segmental pattern of the larva. These loci probably represent the majority of such genes in Drosophila. The phenotypes of the mutant embryos indicate that the process of segmentation involves at least three levels of spatial(More)
Zebrafish embryos and larvae have stage-specific patterns of motility or locomotion. Two embryonic structures accomplish this behavior: the central nervous system (CNS) and skeletal muscles. To identify genes that are functionally involved in mediating and controlling different patterns of embryonic and larval motility, we included a simple touch response(More)
The organization of the anterior pattern in the Drosophila embryo is mediated by the maternal effect gene bicoid. bcd has been identified in an 8.7-kb genomic fragment by germ line transformants that completely rescue the mutant phenotype. The major transcript of 2.6 kb includes a homeobox with low homology to previously known homeoboxes, a PRD-repeat and a(More)
The maternal gene bicoid (bcd) organizes anterior development in Drosophila. Its mRNA is localized at the anterior tip of the oocyte and early embryo. Antibodies raised against bcd fusion proteins recognize a 55-57 kd doublet band in Western blots of extracts of 0-4 hr old embryos. This protein is absent or reduced in embryonic extracts of nine of the 11(More)
Zebrafish have become a popular organism for the study of vertebrate gene function. The virtually transparent embryos of this species, and the ability to accelerate genetic studies by gene knockdown or overexpression, have led to the widespread use of zebrafish in the detailed investigation of vertebrate gene function and increasingly, the study of human(More)
Somitogenesis has been linked both to a molecular clock that controls the oscillation of gene expression in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) and to Notch pathway signaling. The oscillator, or clock, is thought to create a prepattern of stripes of gene expression that regulates the activity of the Notch pathway that subsequently directs somite border formation.(More)
In a large-scale screen, we isolated mutants displaying a specific visible phenotype in embryos or early larvae of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Males were mutagenized with ethylnitrosourea (ENU) and F2 families of single pair matings between sibling F1 fish, heterozygous for a mutagenized genome, were raised. Egg lays were obtained from several crosses(More)
Embryos mutant for the T gene, in mice, make insufficient mesoderm and fail to develop a notochord. We report the cloning and sequencing of the T gene in the zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) and show the nuclear localization of the protein product. Both RNA and protein are found in cells of the germ ring, including enveloping layer cells, prior to and during(More)
The bicoid (bcd) protein in a Drosophila embryo is derived from an anteriorly localized mRNA and comes to be distributed in an exponential concentration gradient along the anteroposterior axis. To determine whether the levels of bcd protein are directly related to certain cell fates, we manipulated the density and distribution of bcd mRNA by genetic means,(More)