Christian Wolfrum

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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a key regulator of lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes and target for fatty acids and hypolipidemic drugs. How these signaling molecules reach the nuclear receptor is not known; however, similarities in ligand specificity suggest the liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) as a possible(More)
The regulation of fat and glucose metabolism in the liver is controlled primarily by insulin and glucagon. Changes in the circulating concentrations of these hormones signal fed or starvation states and elicit counter-regulatory responses that maintain normoglycaemia. Here we show that in normal mice, plasma insulin inhibits the forkhead transcription(More)
Irisin was identified as a myokine secreted by contracting skeletal muscle, possibly mediating some exercise health benefits via 'browning' of white adipose tissue. However, a controversy exists concerning irisin origin, regulation and function in humans. Thus, we have explored Fndc5 gene and irisin protein in two clinical studies: (i) a cross-sectional(More)
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are considered antiatherogenic because they mediate reverse cholesterol transport from the periphery to the liver for excretion and degradation. Here we show that mice deficient in apolipoprotein M (apoM), a component of the HDL particle, accumulated cholesterol in large HDL particles (HDL(1)) while the conversion of HDL to(More)
Cholesterol-conjugated siRNAs can silence gene expression in vivo. Here we synthesize a variety of lipophilic siRNAs and use them to elucidate the requirements for siRNA delivery in vivo. We show that conjugation to bile acids and long-chain fatty acids, in addition to cholesterol, mediates siRNA uptake into cells and gene silencing in vivo. Efficient and(More)
We showed recently that a targeted null mutation in the murine sterol carrier protein 2-/sterol carrier protein x-gene (Scp2) leads to defective peroxisomal catabolism of 3,7,11, 15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid (phytanic acid), peroxisome proliferation, hypolipidemia, and enhanced hepatic expression of several genes that have been demonstrated to be(More)
Inherited defects in signaling pathways downstream of the insulin receptor have long been suggested to contribute to human type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here we describe a mutation in the gene encoding the protein kinase AKT2/PKBbeta in a family that shows autosomal dominant inheritance of severe insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Expression of the(More)
Branched-chain phytanic acid is metabolized in liver peroxisomes. Sterol carrier protein 2/sterol carrier protein x (SCP2/SCPx) knockout mice, which develop a phenotype with a deficiency in phytanic acid degradation, accumulate dramatically high concentrations of this fatty acid in serum (Seedorf at al. 1998. Genes Dev. 12: 1189-1201) and liver.(More)
Forkhead transcription factor Foxa2 activates genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and is regulated by insulin. Activation of Foxa2 in the liver leads to increased oxidation and secretion of fatty acids in the form of triacylglycerols (TAGs), a process impaired in type 2 diabetes. Here, we demonstrate that Foxa2 is coactivated by PPARgamma coactivator(More)
Brown adipose tissue helps to maintain body temperature in hibernators, rodents and neonatal mammals by converting lipids and glucose into heat, thereby increasing energy expenditure. In addition to classical brown adipocytes, adult rodents-like adult humans-harbour brown-like adipocytes in the predominantly white adipose tissue. The formation of these(More)