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High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are considered antiatherogenic because they mediate reverse cholesterol transport from the periphery to the liver for excretion and degradation. Here we show that mice deficient in apolipoprotein M (apoM), a component of the HDL particle, accumulated cholesterol in large HDL particles (HDL(1)) while the conversion of HDL to(More)
The regulation of fat and glucose metabolism in the liver is controlled primarily by insulin and glucagon. Changes in the circulating concentrations of these hormones signal fed or starvation states and elicit counter-regulatory responses that maintain normoglycaemia. Here we show that in normal mice, plasma insulin inhibits the forkhead transcription(More)
Cholesterol-conjugated siRNAs can silence gene expression in vivo. Here we synthesize a variety of lipophilic siRNAs and use them to elucidate the requirements for siRNA delivery in vivo. We show that conjugation to bile acids and long-chain fatty acids, in addition to cholesterol, mediates siRNA uptake into cells and gene silencing in vivo. Efficient and(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a key regulator of lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes and target for fatty acids and hypolipidemic drugs. How these signaling molecules reach the nuclear receptor is not known; however, similarities in ligand specificity suggest the liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) as a possible(More)
Inherited defects in signaling pathways downstream of the insulin receptor have long been suggested to contribute to human type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here we describe a mutation in the gene encoding the protein kinase AKT2/PKBbeta in a family that shows autosomal dominant inheritance of severe insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Expression of the(More)
Both early diagnostic and prognostic assessment of the acute abdomen in preterm infants are hampered by the lack of a sensitive and specific parameter for intestinal injury. In this prospective clinical study we wanted to estimate the value of intestinal (I-) and liver (L-) fatty acid binding protein (FABP) in diagnosing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).(More)
Irisin was identified as a myokine secreted by contracting skeletal muscle, possibly mediating some exercise health benefits via 'browning' of white adipose tissue. However, a controversy exists concerning irisin origin, regulation and function in humans. Thus, we have explored Fndc5 gene and irisin protein in two clinical studies: (i) a cross-sectional(More)
Forkhead transcription factor Foxa2 activates genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and is regulated by insulin. Activation of Foxa2 in the liver leads to increased oxidation and secretion of fatty acids in the form of triacylglycerols (TAGs), a process impaired in type 2 diabetes. Here, we demonstrate that Foxa2 is coactivated by PPARgamma coactivator(More)
Hepatocyte nuclear factors 3 alpha, beta, and gamma (Foxa-1, -2, and -3) are transcriptional activators of important metabolic genes in the liver that are suppressed by the actions of insulin. Here, we show that the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt by insulin induces Foxa-2 phosphorylation, nuclear exclusion, and inhibition of(More)
Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1a (HNF-1alpha) is a transcription factor that plays an important role in regulation of gene expression in pancreatic beta-cells, intestine, kidney, and liver. Heterozygous mutations in the HNF-1alpha gene are responsible for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY3), which is characterized by pancreatic beta-cell-deficient(More)