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CDC6 is conserved during evolution and is essential and limiting for the initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication. Human CDC6 activity is regulated by periodic transcription and CDK-regulated subcellular localization. Here, we show that, in addition to being absent from nonproliferating cells, CDC6 is targeted for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by the(More)
The E2F family of transcription factors are essential for the regulation of genes required for appropriate progression through the cell cycle. Five members of the E2F family have been previously reported, namely E2F1-5. All five are key elements in transcriptional regulation of essential genes, and they can be divided into two functional groups, those that(More)
Breast cancers are either primarily resistant to chemotherapy (intrinsic resistance), or respond to chemotherapy but later recur with a multidrug-resistant phenotype because of overexpression of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein. The MDR1 gene encoding P-glycoprotein may be transcriptionally regulated by a Y-box transcription factor. We now report(More)
We have studied the expression of members of the bcl-2 family in human breast cancer. The expression pattern of these genes in breast cancer tissue samples was compared with the expression pattern in normal breast epithelium. No marked difference with regard to bcl-2 and bcl-xL expression was observed between normal breast epithelium and cancer tissue. In(More)
The six members of the E2F family of transcription factors play a key role in the control of cell cycle progression by regulating the expression of genes involved in DNA replication and cell proliferation. E2F-1, -2, and -3 belong to a structural and functional subfamily distinct from those of the other E2F family members. Here we report that E2F-1, -2, and(More)
We have studied the expression of the apoptosis-regulating genes bcl-2, bcl-x, bax and APO-1/fas (CD95) in human breast cancer. The expression pattern of these genes in human breast-cancer tissues and breast-cancer-derived cell lines was compared to that seen in normal breast epithelium and breast epithelial cell lines. No difference with regard to bcl-2(More)
The transcriptional repressor E2F6 has been identified as a component of two distinct polycomb group protein (PcG)-containing complexes, suggesting a mechanism for the recruitment of repressive complexes to target sequences in DNA. Whereas one complex is involved in the repression of classic E2F target genes in G0, a role for E2F6 within the cell cycle has(More)
Multihop wireless hotspot network [A. Balachandran et al., (2003), F. Fitzek et al., (2003), Y-D. Lin et al., (1999), K-C. Wang et al., (2003)] has been recently proposed to extend the coverage area of a base station. However, with selfish nodes in the network, multihop packet forwarding cannot take place without an incentive mechanism. In this paper, we(More)
Resistance to apoptosis plays an important role in malignancies that are refractory to chemotherapy treatment. Recently we have shown that the expression of bax-alpha, a death-promoting member of the bcl-2 family, is down-regulated in breast cancer and have provided evidence that low bax expression might contribute to the pathogenesis of breast cancer. In(More)
The members of the bcl-2 gene family are major regulators of programmed cell death, but their role in sIg-triggered apoptosis remains unclear. Using sensitive and resistant variants of the human B cell line BL-41, we studied the expression of the bcl-2 gene family during surface IgM-mediated apoptosis. We found constitutive Bcl-2 and Bcl-x expression, which(More)