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The two forms of pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP-27 and -38) are neuropeptides of the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/growth-hormone-releasing hormone family and regulate hormone release from the pituitary and adrenal gland. They may also be involved in spermatogenesis, and PACAP-38 potently stimulates(More)
Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) promotes proliferation of neuroprogenitor cells in culture and is up-regulated within brain after injury. Using mice genetically deficient in FGF-2 (FGF-2(-/-) mice), we addressed the importance of endogenously generated FGF-2 on neurogenesis within the hippocampus, a structure involved in spatial, declarative, and(More)
Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP, EC 2.4.2.30), an abundant nuclear protein activated by DNA nicks, mediates cell death in vitro by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) depletion after exposure to nitric oxide. The authors examined whether genetic deletion of PARP (PARP null mice) or its pharmacologic inhibition by 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) attenuates(More)
[35S]Guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate ([35S]GTPgammaS) binding to G proteins was measured by in vitro autoradiography in guinea pig and rat brain sections after activation by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor agonists. 5-Carboxamidotryptamine stimulated binding strongly in hippocampus and lateral septum and weakly in substantia nigra. This effect was(More)
The present study addresses the relationship between blood flow and glucose consumption in rat primary somatosensory cortex (SI) in vivo. We examined bilateral neuronal and hemodynamic changes and 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) uptake, as measured by autoradiography, in response to unilateral forepaw stimulation. In contrast to the contralateral forepaw area, where(More)
1) The possibility was explored that the recently defined 5-HT1D binding sites could be negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase in calf substantia nigra. 2) 5-HT inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 valu e = 24.0 nmol/l, E max = 22.7% inhibition) in the presence of GTP (10 μmol/l), which was(More)
The regional distribution of high affinity [3H]5-HT recognition sites in the brain of several vertebrates (pigeon, rat, mouse, guinea-pig, cat, dog, monkey and human) was analyzed using in vitro autoradiography. The presence of subtypes of 5-HT1 binding sites was investigated by selective displacements with 8-OH-DPAT, mesulergine and (+/-)SDZ 21-009 at(More)
After mild ischemic insults, many neurons undergo delayed neuronal death. Aberrant activation of the cell cycle machinery is thought to contribute to apoptosis in various conditions including ischemia. We demonstrate that loss of endogenous cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p16(INK4a) is an early and reliable indicator of delayed neuronal death in(More)
OBJECTIVE The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist fingolimod (FTY720), that has shown efficacy in advanced multiple sclerosis clinical trials, decreases reperfusion injury in heart, liver, and kidney. We therefore tested the therapeutic effects of fingolimod in several rodent models of focal cerebral ischemia. To assess the translational(More)
1) The binding characteristics of [3H]5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) were investigated in membrane preparations of several regions from calf, pig and human brain in the presence of 100 nmol/l 8-OH-DPAT (8-hydroxy-2[di-n-dipropylamino]tetralin) and 100 nmol/l mesulergine in order to mask 5-HT1A and 5-HT1C sites. 2) [3H]5-HT bound rapidly, reversibly(More)