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The two forms of pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP-27 and -38) are neuropeptides of the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/growth-hormone-releasing hormone family and regulate hormone release from the pituitary and adrenal gland. They may also be involved in spermatogenesis, and PACAP-38 potently stimulates(More)
OBJECTIVE The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist fingolimod (FTY720), that has shown efficacy in advanced multiple sclerosis clinical trials, decreases reperfusion injury in heart, liver, and kidney. We therefore tested the therapeutic effects of fingolimod in several rodent models of focal cerebral ischemia. To assess the translational(More)
1. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are thought to have a delay in therapeutic efficacy because of the need to overcome the inhibitory influence of raphe 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors. Prolonged SSRI administration has been reported to desensitize these autoreceptors. We have used [(35)S]-GTP gamma S autoradiography to determine whether this(More)
The regional distribution and cellular localization of mRNA coding for the serotonin 1C receptor were investigated in tissue sections of mouse and rat brain by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Several 32P-labelled riboprobes derived from mouse genomic clones were used. The serotonin 1C receptor binding sites were visualized autoradiographically and(More)
In order to determine the distribution and function of the 5-HT5A serotonin receptor subtype, we generated knockout mice lacking the 5-HT5A gene. Comparative autoradiography studies of brains of wild-type (wt) and 5-HT5A knockout (5A-KO) mice revealed the existence of binding sites with high affinity for [125I]LSD that correspond to 5-HT5A receptors and(More)
We studied the role of FGF-2 on regulation of neurogenesis and cell loss in the granule cell layer (GCL) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). In both FGF-2(-/-) and FGF-2(+/+) mice subjected to controlled cortical impact, the number of dividing cells labeled with BrdU, injected on posttrauma days 6 through 8,(More)
Dopamine is a neuromodulator the functions of which in the regulation of complex behaviors such as mood, motivation, and attention are well known. Dopamine appears in the brain early in the embryonic period when none of those behaviors is robust, raising the possibility that dopamine may influence brain development. The effects of dopamine on specific(More)
BACKGROUND Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts, images, or impulses and/or repetitive stereotypical behavior. Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients exhibit reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI) and symptom exacerbation after challenge with 5-HT1B receptor agonists. Recently, gain-of-function alleles of the serotonin(More)
Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) promotes proliferation of neuroprogenitor cells in culture and is up-regulated within brain after injury. Using mice genetically deficient in FGF-2 (FGF-2(-/-) mice), we addressed the importance of endogenously generated FGF-2 on neurogenesis within the hippocampus, a structure involved in spatial, declarative, and(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in migraine pathogenesis based on the delayed development of typical migraine headache 4-6 h after infusing the NO donor nitroglycerin [glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)] to migraineurs. Furthermore, inhibiting the synthesis of NO by treatment with a NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor attenuates spontaneous migraine headaches in 67%(More)